Cover Letter Help

It is essential for a resume to have a cover letter. It has the effect of having the resume overlooked or getting a prospective employee meeting. Subsequently, an individual should take care to commit the vital time and exertion for making viable cover letters. To know “how can write a cover letter for the job”, it is essential to understand regarding the cover letter. It is defined below.

A Cover Letter

Before influencing a cover to the letter, a man ought to acclimate himself with the archive’s motivation. It can be characterized as a record sent with continue. It gives extra data on experience and aptitudes.

It gives a point by point data on the reason for the qualification for the activity. A man ought to incorporate particular data on why you’re a solid match for the business’ activity prerequisites. Consider cover letter as an attempt to seal the deal that will showcase your certifications. It gets the meeting. It is basic for the contender to compose a cover letter for the organization since it establishes great connection on the questioner.

A cover letter commonly goes with each resume of a hopeful, he conveys. Bosses utilize cover letters as an approach to screen candidates for accessible employment and to figure out which applicants they might want to encounter. It will demonstrate that you have put some additional exertion into your application.

Types of Cover Letters

The different type of cover letters are following:

  • The application letter which response to a known job opening.
  • The prospecting letter which inquires about possible positions, for example, writes a cover letter for the university, write a cover letter for Ph.D.
  • The networking letter which requests information and assistance in job search such as write cover letter Canada.

Elements Of A Cover Letter

A cover letter should supplement the resume of a person. People often want to know, and they search “write a cover letter for me.” Its motivation is to translate the information situated, authentic resume and add an individual touch to the application for work. A cover letter is regularly a soonest composed contact with a potential manager. It makes a basic initial introduction. On the off chance that the cover letter is without blunder and consummately composed, if it is general it is likewise liable to be dismissed by an employing director.

Compelling cover letters clarify the reasons of enthusiasm of an applicant in the particular association. It recognizes the most encounters or important abilities. The competitor ought to decide pertinence via painstakingly perusing the expected set of responsibilities, assessing the aptitudes required and coordinating them to your abilities. It will demonstrate that he have put some additional exertion into his application.

Guidelines for Writing Cover Letter

These cover letter, both composed and email, are intended for a wide range of sorts of occupation applications and work request. It is required to require the investment to customize the letter, so it’s a solid support of the capacity to carry out the activity for which the application is made.

    • Heading:

There ought to be legitimate data of the competitor and also the business at the beginning of the cover letter. In the event of an email, the contact data ought to be given toward the finish of the letter, after the mark.

    • The contact information includes following: :
  • First and Last Name
  • Street Address
  • City, State Zip
  • Phone
  • Email

 

  • Acknowledgment:

 

Begin with Dr./Mr./Ms. Last Name. If you are unsure if your contact is male or female, you can write out their full name. If you do not know the employer’s name, simply write, Dear Hiring Manager.

 

  • Introduction:

 

Start the presentation by expressing what work an applicant is applying for. Clarify where he found out about the activity. Likewise, specify the experience and abilities that match the organization as well as position. It will give the business of whatever remains of a letter. The objective in the acquaintance is with stand out enough to be noticed.

 

  • Body:

 

In maybe disclose the motivation to apply for this activity and why a hopeful makes a great individual for the position. Say particular capabilities recorded in the activity posting. Clarify how he meets those capabilities. Don’t just repeat the resume, yet give particular cases that show the capacities.

Keep in mind; activities talk louder than words, so don’t simply “tell” the pursuer that you are, for instance, an incredible cooperative person with solid relational abilities and an astounding tender loving care. Rather, utilize unmistakable cases from your work understanding to “appear” these characteristics in real life. Here’s more data on what to incorporate into the body area of a cover letter.

 

  • Closing:

 

In the end segment of a cover letter, repeat how the abilities make the hopeful a solid fit for the organization and additionally position. He can likewise talk about why he might want to work at that particular organization.

 

  • Signature:

 

Utilize a complimentary close, and after that end, the cover letter with signature, written by hand, trailed by the composed name. If this is an email, essentially incorporate the composed name, trailed by the contact data, after the complimentary close.

 

  • Format the Cover Letter:

 

A cover letter ought to be organized like an expert letter. The textual style should coordinate the text style utilized on the resume. It ought to be basic and simple to peruse. Essential text styles like “Arial, Calibri, Georgia, Verdana, and Times New Roman function admirably.” It is anything but difficult to peruse the text dimension of 10 or 12 focuses. The page edge ought to be “1”. He can decrease the textual style and edge sizes to keep the record on a solitary page. Be that as it may, do make certain to leave enough blank area for a letter to be anything but difficult to peruse.

 

  • Edit and Proofread Your Cover Letter:

 

Make sure to alter and proof the cover letter before sending it. It might sound senseless, however, ensure it incorporates the right organization and boss names. Since when you compose numerous cover letters without a moment’s delay, it is anything but difficult to commit an error. “Printing out and perusing the letter so anyone might hear is a decent method to get little grammatical mistakes, for example, missing words, or sentences that sound odd.”

Continuously check the spelling of the name of the contact, and also the name of the organization. There are more tips for proofreading a cover letter. On the off chance that conceivable, enroll a companion or a relative to help proofread the cover letter, as two sets of eyes are superior to one and even proficient proofreaders don’t get their particular slip-ups.

 

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Data Structure Quiz

Top of Form
An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 2

Question text
A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 3

Question text
Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 4

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 5

Question text
The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 6

Question text
A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue
Question 8

Question text
True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9

Question text
Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 10

Question text
True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 11

Question text
A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
Question 12

Question text
If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 13

Question text
Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 14

Question text
A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 15

Question text
A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 17

Question text
In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 18

Question text
True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 19

Question text
A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 20

Question text
A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 21

Question text
Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 22

Question text
The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 23

Question text
The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 24

Question text
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 25

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Bottom of Form
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 2
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 3
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Question text
The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1

The correct answer is: 3
Question 4
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Question text
The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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Question text
The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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Question text
For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 8
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Question text
A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 9
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10
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Question text
For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 11
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12
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Question text
Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13
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Question text
Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 14
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Question text
A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 15
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter
Question 16
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Question text
For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 17
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 18
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19
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Question text
A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 20
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 21
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 22
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 23
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 24
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 25
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 26
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 27
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 28
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 29
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 30
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 31
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 32
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 33
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 34
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 35
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 36
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 37
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 38
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 39
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 41
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 42
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 43
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 44
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 45
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 46
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 47
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 48
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 49
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 50
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 51
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 52
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 53
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 55
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 56
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 57
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 58
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 59
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 60
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 61
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 63
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 64
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 65
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 66
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 67
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 68
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 69
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 70
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 71
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack
Question 72
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 73
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 74
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 75
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 76
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 77
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 78
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 79
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 80
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 81
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 83
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 84
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 88
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 91
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 92
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 93
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 94
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue
Question 95
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 96
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 97
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 98
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 99
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 100
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 101
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 102
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 103
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 104
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 105
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 106
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 2
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 4
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 5
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 8
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 9
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 11
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 13
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 14
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 15
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 16
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 17
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 18
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 19
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 20
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 21
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 22
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 23
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 24
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 25
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 26
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 27
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 28
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 29
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 30
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 31
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 32
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 33
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 34
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 35
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 36
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 37
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 38
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 39
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 40
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 41
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 42
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 43
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 44
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 45
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 46
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 47
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 48
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 50
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 51
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 52
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 53
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 54
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 55
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
Question 56
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 57
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 58
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 59
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 60
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 61
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 62
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 63
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 64
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 65
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 66
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 67
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 68
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 69
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 70
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter
Question 71
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 73
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 74
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 76
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 77
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue
Question 78
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 79
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 80
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 81
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 83
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 84
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 85
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 86
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 87
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 88
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 89
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack
Question 90
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 91
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 92
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 93
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 94
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1

The correct answer is: 3
Question 95
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 96
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 97
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 99
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 100
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 101
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 102
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 103
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 104
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 105
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 106
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 2

Question text
An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 3

Question text
The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4

Question text
Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 5

Question text
If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 6

Question text
According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 7

Question text
Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 9

Question text
Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps
The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 2

Question text
Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 3

Question text
True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 5

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 6

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 7

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 8

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 9

Question text
For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 10

Question text
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Top of Form
A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 2

Question text
A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 4

Question text
A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 8

Question text
In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 10

Question text
In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3
Bottom of Form
A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 2

Question text
The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4

Question text
A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 6

Question text
A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 8

Question text
Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 9

Question text
The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1

The correct answer is: 3
Question 10

Question text
According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Top of Form
A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
Question 2

Question text
A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 3

Question text
The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 4

Question text
A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 6

Question text
A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 8

Question text
A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9

Question text
The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10

Question text
The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 2

Question text
A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 3

Question text
A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 4

Question text
An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 5

Question text
A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 6

Question text
The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 8

Question text
A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 9

Question text
The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 10

Question text
The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Bottom of Form
Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 2

Question text
Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 3

Question text
A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 4

Question text
Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 5

Question text
Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter
Question 6

Question text
The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 7

Question text
A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 9

Question text
An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 10

Question text
A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Top of Form
Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 2

Question text
A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 3

Question text
A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 4

Question text
A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 6

Question text
The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 8

Question text
A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9

Question text
A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 10

Question text
The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Bottom of Form
A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 2
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 3
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 4
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 8
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 11
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 12
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 14
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 15
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 16
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 17
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 18
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 19
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 20
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 21
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 22
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Question text
Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue
Question 23
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 24
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 25
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 26
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 27
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 28
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 29
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Question text
A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 30
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Question text
A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 31
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Question text
A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 32
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Question text
A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 33
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 34
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 35
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 36
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 37
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack
Question 38
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 39
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 41
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 42
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 43
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 44
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1

The correct answer is: 3
Question 45
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter
Question 46
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 47
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 48
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 49
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 50
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 51
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 52
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 53
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 54
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 55
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 56
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 57
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 58
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 59
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 60
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 61
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 62
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 63
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 64
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 65
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 66
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 67
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 68
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 69
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 70
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 71
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 72
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 73
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 74
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 75
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 76
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 77
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
Question 78
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 79
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 80
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 81
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 85
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 86
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 88
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 91
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 94
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 96
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 100
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 102
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 103
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 104
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 105
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 106
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration
The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm

The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 7
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node

The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 8
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 10
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory

The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 11
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression

The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 12
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 13
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation

The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)

The correct answer is: log n + log m
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query

The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Selection sort
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing

The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 20
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth

The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Circular linked list
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 24
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options

The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 25
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence

The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 26
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods

The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 27
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus

The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 29
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 30
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation

The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 31
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector

The correct answer is: Platter
Question 32
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1

The correct answer is: 3
Question 33
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type

The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 34
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 35
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 36
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 38
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage

The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 39
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach

The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 41
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 42
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.

The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key

The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 44
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU

The correct answer is: LIFO
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals

The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 46
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Queue
Question 47
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 48
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 49
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 50
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 51
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 52
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 53
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 54
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 55
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.

The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 56
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 57
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort

The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 58
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 59
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT

The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 60
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array

The correct answer is: Stack
Question 61
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search

The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 63
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure

The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 64
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 65
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree

The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 66
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use

The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations

The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 68
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 69
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.

The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 70
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 71
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 72
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 73
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort

The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 74
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 75
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 76
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 77
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy

The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 78
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 79
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 80
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal

The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 81
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 83
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 84
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )

The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 85
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 86
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 87
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable

The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 88
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared

The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 89
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}

The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 90
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache

The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 91
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 92
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 93
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 94
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 95
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 96
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 97
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 98
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 99
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 100
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort

The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 101
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes

The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 102
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 103
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation

The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 104
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree

The correct answer is: Tree
Question 105
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4

The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 106
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4

The correct answer is: Choice 3

Comparative Programming Languages Quiz

Top of Form
An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
Feedback
The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 2
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
Feedback
The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 3
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Feedback
The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 4
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 5
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
Feedback
The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 6
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Queue
Question 8
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
Feedback
The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 10
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 11
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
Feedback
The correct answer is: Tree
Question 12
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Feedback
The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 13
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Feedback
The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 14
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 15
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 17
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
Feedback
The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 18
Correct
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 19
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 20
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 21
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
Feedback
The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 22
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 23
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
Feedback
The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 24
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Feedback
The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 25
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Option 2
Bottom of Form
For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 2
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1
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The correct answer is: 3
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 8
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search
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The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 9
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 11
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 14
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree
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The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 15
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector
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The correct answer is: Platter
Question 16
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 17
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 18
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query
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The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 20
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable
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The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 21
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm
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The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 22
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 23
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 24
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 25
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory
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The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 26
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 27
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 28
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT
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The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 29
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options
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The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 30
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 31
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key
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The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 32
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 33
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 34
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache
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The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 35
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)
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The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 36
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort
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The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 37
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 38
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
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The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 39
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 41
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth
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The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 42
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
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The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 43
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 44
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 45
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 46
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 47
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 48
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 49
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 50
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus
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The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 51
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 52
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals
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The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 53
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
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The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 54
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 55
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression
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The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 56
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
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The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 57
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 58
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 59
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type
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The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 60
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods
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The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 61
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 62
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 63
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )
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The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 64
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 65
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 66
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU
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The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 67
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
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The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 68
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 69
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 70
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 71
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Stack
Question 72
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 73
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach
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The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 74
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage
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The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 75
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 76
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 77
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 78
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 79
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence
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The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 80
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing
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The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 81
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 83
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 84
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 85
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort
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The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 86
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 87
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 88
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
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The correct answer is: Tree
Question 89
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 90
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 91
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 92
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 93
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 94
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Queue
Question 95
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 96
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 97
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
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The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 98
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 99
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
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The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 100
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 101
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations
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The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 102
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 103
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 104
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 105
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared
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The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 106
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Selection sort
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
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The correct answer is: max-heap structure
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 8
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort
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The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 9
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 11
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth
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The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable
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The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 17
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 18
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory
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The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 19
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query
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The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 20
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 21
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree
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The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 22
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals
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The correct answer is: a Forest
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 24
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT
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The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 25
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU
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The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 26
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods
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The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 27
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus
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The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 28
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 29
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 30
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 31
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 32
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 33
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 34
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k
=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 35
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 36
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 37
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 38
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 39
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 40
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search
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The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 41
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach
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The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 42
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key
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The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 43
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 44
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 45
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 46
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 47
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 48
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
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The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 49
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 50
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options
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The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 51
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 52
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort
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The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 53
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 54
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence
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The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 55
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
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The correct answer is: Tree
Question 56
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
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The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 57
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 58
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 59
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 60
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 61
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
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The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 62
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 63
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )
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The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 64
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 65
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 66
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 67
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage
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The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 68
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 69
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 70
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector
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The correct answer is: Platter
Question 71
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 72
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 73
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 74
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 75
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 76
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type
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The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 77
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Queue
Question 78
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 79
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 80
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache
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The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 81
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 83
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
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The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 84
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
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The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 85
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared
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The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 86
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 87
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 88
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
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The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 89
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Stack
Question 90
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 91
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm
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The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 92
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing
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The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 93
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 94
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1
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The correct answer is: 3
Question 95
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 96
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression
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The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 97
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 98
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)
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The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 99
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 100
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 101
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations
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The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 102
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 103
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 104
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
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The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 2
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type
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The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 3
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
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The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 5
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 6
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)
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The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 7
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus
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The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 9
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps
The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth
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The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 2
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 3
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 5
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 6
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 7
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 8
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 9
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 10
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Top of Form
A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT
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The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 2
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
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The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 4
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 8
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
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The correct answer is: Circular linked list
Question 10
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 3
Bottom of Form
A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 2
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence
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The correct answer is: An enumeration
Question 6
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
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The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 8
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 9
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1
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The correct answer is: 3
Question 10
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )
Feedback
The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Top of Form
A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
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The correct answer is: Tree
Question 2
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals
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The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 3
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
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The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 4
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression
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The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 6
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
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The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 8
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False
Feedback
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 2
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 3
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 4
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable
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The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 5
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort
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The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 6
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared
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The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 8
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort
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The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 9
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 10
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Bottom of Form
Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache
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The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 2
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU
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The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 3
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory
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The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 4
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options
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The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 5
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector
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The correct answer is: Platter
Question 6
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing
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The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 7
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage
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The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 9
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm
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The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 10
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations
Feedback
The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Top of Form
Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods
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The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 2
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query
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The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 3
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search
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The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 4
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach
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The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 6
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key
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The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 8
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree
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The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 10
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Bottom of Form
A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key
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The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 3
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type
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The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
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The correct answer is: Circular linked list
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach
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The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU
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The correct answer is: LIFO
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Queue
Question 23
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations
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The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 27
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 28
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 29
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory
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The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 30
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Selection sort
Question 31
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 32
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query
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The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
Question 33
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 34
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
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The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 35
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 36
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
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The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 37
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Stack
Question 38
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The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 39
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 41
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods
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The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 42
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 43
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1
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The correct answer is: 3
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector
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The correct answer is: Platter
Question 46
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
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The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 49
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 50
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 51
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable
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The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 53
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
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The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 54
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 55
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort
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The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 56
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 57
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 58
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals
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The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 59
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 60
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus
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The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 61
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 62
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 63
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 64
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 65
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 66
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression
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The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 67
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing
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The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 68
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
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The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 69
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort
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The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 70
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 71
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 72
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )
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The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 73
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth
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The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
Question 74
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 75
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 76
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 77
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
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The correct answer is: Tree
Question 78
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 79
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 80
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 81
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 83
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache
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The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 84
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Question 85
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
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The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 86
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 87
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm
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The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
Question 88
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT
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The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 89
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 90
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 91
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 92
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage
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The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 93
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search
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The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 94
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 95
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)
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The correct answer is: log n + log m
Question 96
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 97
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 98
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared
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The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 99
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 100
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 101
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 102
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree
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The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 103
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 104
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 105
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options
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The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 106
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence
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The correct answer is: An enumeration
The process of associating a key with the location of a corresponding data record is called folding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A characteristic of RAM (random access memory) is that it is persistent and is not lost when the power to a computer is turned off.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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An algorithm that breaks a file to be sorted in smaller files called runs which are sorted and eventually put back together resulting in a sorted file is called:
Select one:
a. Quicksort algorithm
b. Replacement sort algorithm
c. An indexed key sort algorithm
d. Mergesort algorithm
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The correct answer is: Mergesort algorithm
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The weighted union rule joins a tree with fewer nodes to a tree with more nodes by making the smaller tree’s root point to the root of the larger tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i *= 2) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
count++;
}
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here the outer loop is done log n times and the inner loop is done n times, so T(n) = n log n. (Note that the default base for logarithms in Computer Science is 2.)
The correct answer is: Option 3
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The best asymptotic analysis for the selection sort is represented by (select the best option):
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 7
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A leaf is any node that:
Select one:
a. Has one child
b. Is an internal node with no ancestors
c. Is any node with two empty children
d. Is the ancestor of the root node
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The correct answer is: Is any node with two empty children
Question 8
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A preorder traversal visits every node starting at the leaf nodes and working up the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return Position of largest value in “A“ */
static int largest(int[] A) {
int currlarge = 0; // Position of largest
for (int i=1; i<A.length; i++)
if (A[currlarge] < A[i])
currlarge = i; // Remember pos
return currlarge; // Return largest pos
}

Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
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A technique that allows a programmer to use more main memory than exists in the computer is called: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Buffer cache
b. Random access memory
c. Secondary storage
d. Virtual memory
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The correct answer is: Virtual memory
Question 11
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A method that is designed to create extremely shallow trees is called:
Select one:
a. Dynamic node implementation
b. Union/Find
c. The list of children method
d. Path compression
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The correct answer is: Path compression
Question 12
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
for (i=1; i<=j; i++)
sum++;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 13
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Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis is primarily concerned with:
Select one:
a. The size of the constant in the algorithm running time equation
b. The speed of the computing running the algorithm
c. The speed of the compiler
d. The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
Feedback
The correct answer is: The growth rate demonstrated in the algorithm running time equation
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According to the properties of logarithms, log(nm) =
Note: Due to issues with HTML formatting, an exponent is represented by preceding it with the ^ symbol. As such x^2 is equivalent to x2.
Select one:
a. log n – log m
b. n log n
c. log n + log m
d. log(n^m)
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The correct answer is: log n + log m
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The process for visiting all of the nodes of a binary tree in some order is called a traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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A list is said to be empty when all of its elements have a zero (0) value
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
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A list that organizes the order of records within the list based upon patterns of actual record access is called a/an (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. Quadratic Binary search order
b. A Zipf Distribution
c. A Self-organizing list
d. A range query
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The correct answer is: A Self-organizing list
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A sort that features a limit of n-1 of record swaps is called:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Selection sort
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The process of storing blocks of data in main memory after reading from disk is referred to as:
Select one:
a. Buffering
b. Hashing
c. Pooling
d. Indexing
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The correct answer is: Buffering
Question 20
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by:
Select one:
a. Big Oh (O)
b. Big Omega (Ω)
c. Big Theta (Θ)
d. Exponential growth
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The correct answer is: Big Oh (O)
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A coding scheme that replaces repeated occurrences of strings with a pointer to the location in the file of the first occurrence of the string is called Ziv-Lempel coding.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
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In linked lists there are no NULL links in:
Select one:
a. Single linked list
b. Linear doubly linked list
c. Circular linked list
d. None of these
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The correct answer is: Circular linked list
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The benefit of a quicksort is that it provides excellent performance in both the average and worst case:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 24
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Internal Fragmentation refers to: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector
b. Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent on the disk drive
c. Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
d. None of the options
Feedback
The correct answer is: Space that is left empty because records do not fit evenly into a sector or Space allocated to a file that is not physically adjacent
Question 25
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A binary tree traversal that lists every node in the tree exactly once is called:
Select one:
a. a Traversal
b. A visitor design pattern
c. An enumeration
d. Natural ordering sequence
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The correct answer is: An enumeration
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Which of the following is not one of the general approaches to search algorithms:
Select one:
a. Buffer cache access methods
b. Sequential and list methods
c. Direct access by key value (hashing)
d. Tree indexing methods
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The correct answer is: Buffer cache access methods
Question 27
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In a queue, placing new items in the queue is referred to as a push and taking an item out of the queue is called a pop.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 28
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Which of the following is not a mathematical proof technique?
Select one:
a. Proof by mathematical induction
b. Proof by contradiction
c. Direct proof
d. Proof by consensus
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The correct answer is: Proof by consensus
Question 29
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True/False: There is always one most efficient algorithm to solve a particular problem.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 30
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The process of determining if two objects are in the same set and then merging those sets is called:
Select one:
a. a Union Operation
b. Union / Find
c. a Weighted Union
d. a Merge Operation
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The correct answer is: Union / Find
Question 31
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Data is stored within the disk drive on the: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Spindle
b. Platter
c. Cylinder
d. Sector
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The correct answer is: Platter
Question 32
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The depth of node H in the following tree is:

Select one:
a. 3
b. 2
c. 4
d. 1
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The correct answer is: 3
Question 33
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An ADT is:
Select one:
a. A type together with a collection of operations to manipulate the type
b. An implementation of a flyweight design pattern
c. The realization of a data type as a software component
d. An implementation in java of a class for a data type
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The correct answer is: The realization of a data type as a software component
Question 34
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A full binary tree has a restricted shape which starts at the root and fills the tree by levels from left to right.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 35
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 36
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A linked list creates order through the use of pointers that link one element to another.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 37
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The implementation of a data type as a data structure is the physical form of an ADT.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 38
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Secondary storage is characterized by the following:
Select one:
a. It is persistent
b. It is faster than primary storage
c. It is volatile
d. It is more expensive than primary storage
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The correct answer is: It is persistent
Question 39
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The process of storing records in the order that they were added to a file is called:
Select one:
a. Entry-sequenced file
b. Binary Sequenced file
c. LIFO file format
d. Tombstone approach
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The correct answer is: Entry-sequenced file
Question 40
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For the following code fragment, select option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
//
// Search in array a for smallest element starting at i to n-1
//
minIndex = findSmallestElement(a, i, n-1)
a[i] = a[minIndex];
}
findSmallestElement( int a[], int i, int n ) {
int largest = a[i];
while(i<n) {
if(a[i] >a[largest])
largest = i;
i++;
}
return(largest);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
index-of-smallest element in a[i..j] takes j-i+1 operations
• n + (n-1) + (n-2) + (n-3) + … + 3 + 2 + 1
• this is n2
The correct answer is: Option 4
Question 41
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When big-Oh and  coincide, we indicate this by using (select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 42
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of an algorithm?
Select one:
a. It must be correct
b. It must be composed of concrete steps
c. It can have no ambiguity
d. It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
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The correct answer is: It must be composed of an infinite number of steps.
Question 43
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Each record of a database normally has a unique identifier called the:
Select one:
a. Secondary Key
b. Primary index
c. Primary key
d. Index key
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The correct answer is: Primary key
Question 44
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Which of the following is NOT one of the buffer pool heuristics defined in the text : (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. FIFO
b. LIFO
c. LRU
d. LFU
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The correct answer is: LIFO
Question 45
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A collection of one or more trees is called:
Select one:
a. Trees
b. Multiple Spanning Trees
c. a Forest
d. Traversals
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The correct answer is: a Forest
Question 46
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Enqueue and Dequeue are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Queue
Question 47
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A traversal that visits each node after visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Postorder Traversal
Question 48
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (k=1; k<=n; k*=2)
for (j=1; j<=k; j++)
sum2++;
}
Choice 1. O( 2n )
Choice 2. Θ ( n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 49
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key) {
int left = 0;
int right = a.length-1;
while (left <= right) {
int mid = left + (right-left)/2;
if (key < a[mid]) right = mid-1;
else if (key > a[mid]) left = mid+1;
else return mid;
}
//not found
return -1;
}
Option 1. Ω( 1 ), O( log n )
Option 2. Ω( n ), O( 2n )
Option 3. Θ( n log n )
Option 4. Θ( log n )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 50
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The processing time or cost of a sort is defined by the number of comparisons and exchanges that must be made during processing. What is the average cost of the heapsort?:
Option 1. O( n log n )
Option 2. Ω( n2 )
Option 3. O( n2 )
Option 4. Θ( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 51
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
public E getValue ( ) {
assert (curr >= 0) && (curr < listSize) :
“No current element”;
return listArray[curr];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O( 1 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 52
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Recursive Fibonacci generator
static long fibr(int n) {
if ((n == 1) || (n == 2)) return 1; // Base case
return fibr(n-1) + fibr(n-2); // Recursive call
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 53
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 54
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. O ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Ω( n2 )
Choice 4. Θ ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 55
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The freelist …
Select one:
a. Provides access to memory within the operating system that has not yet been allocated
b. Provides access to memory objects which have no Big O ( n ) time.
c. Facilitates and encourages the use of the new operator.
d. Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
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The correct answer is: Holds the list nodes that are no longer in use.
Question 56
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Which of the following is NOT true for Linked Lists structures (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion are ( 1 ).
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the list structure is ( n ).
Choice 3. Space grows with number of elements.
Choice 4. There is no overhead associated with elements in the list structure
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 57
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A sort algorithm that uses two nested loops with the inner loop moving through the array from bottom to top is called the:
Select one:
a. Insertion sort
b. Bubble sort
c. Inversion sort
d. Selection sort
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The correct answer is: Bubble sort
Question 58
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For the following code fragment, select the option which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Option 1. Ω( n2 )
Option 2. Θ ( n )
Option 3. O( log n )
Option 4. O( 2n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 59
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A list is
Select one:
a. An ADT for storing and retrieving data
b. A tree data structure
c. Finite ordered sequence of data items
d. A collection of operations to implement an ADT
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The correct answer is: Finite ordered sequence of data items
Question 60
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Push and Pop are notations associated with which data structure:
Select one:
a. Queue
b. Stack
c. List
d. Array
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The correct answer is: Stack
Question 61
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A tree whose internal nodes all have exactly K children is called a K-ary tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 62
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A compound computed search that combines a binary search to get close to the required record and then uses sequential search to find the item is referred to as a/an:
Select one:
a. Zipf search
b. An Exact match search
c. A Dictionary search
d. bit map vector search
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The correct answer is: A Dictionary search
Question 63
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Correctly identify the following heap structure by selecting the best answer:

Select one:
a. partially ordered heap
b. max-heap structure
c. priority heap
d. min-heap structure
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The correct answer is: max-heap structure
Question 64
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A traversal that visits each node before visiting its children is called:
Select one:
a. Preorder traversal
b. Postorder traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Preorder traversal
Question 65
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A tree data structure whose shape obeys the following definition,
o A node contains one or two keys
o Every internal node has either 2 children if it contains 1 key or 3 children if it contains two keys
o All leaves are at the same level in the tree
Is called a/an:
Select one:
a. B*-Tree
b. BST
c. B+-Tree
d. 2-3 tree
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The correct answer is: 2-3 tree
Question 66
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Select the answer that best defines Huffman Coding:
Select one:
a. A set of coding rules that is typically used for compression
b. A fixed length coding scheme for character representation
c. A tree structure that trades off space and time requirements to provide a more efficient priority queue
d. An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
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The correct answer is: An approach of assigning codes to characters such that the frequency length of the code depends upon the relative frequency of the corresponding character in use
Question 67
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A significant benefit to using an index to hold and sort keys to a file is:
Select one:
a. Smaller keys require less I/O
b. The entire sort can always be completed in memory
c. The head of the disk drive does not need to move
d. There is no seek time added to the latency of I/O operations
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The correct answer is: Smaller keys require less I/O
Question 68
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. O( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 69
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The most time consuming of the following operations on an array based list implementation is:
Select one:
a. Inserting a new element at position n-1 in the list where n is the number of elements in the list.
b. Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
c. Removing an element at position n-1 within the list
d. Removing an element from the tail of the list.
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The correct answer is: Inserting a new element into the head of the list.
Question 70
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
sum = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
sum += n;
return sum;
}
Choice 1. Ω( n2 )
Choice 2. Ω( log n2 )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. O ( n )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 4
Question 71
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum1 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=n; j++)
sum1++;
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n2 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n log n )
Choice 4. Ω( log n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 72
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A linked list implementation relies upon static memory allocation where static refers to the requirement to pre-allocate all of the memory that will be used for the list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 73
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A sorting algorithm that assigns records to bins and then relies on some other sorting technique to sort the records within each bin called:
Select one:
a. Radix Sort
b. Quicksort
c. Hash sort
d. Bucket sort
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The correct answer is: Bucket sort
Question 74
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True/False: The stack data structure is implemented as a LIFO structure (last in first out)
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 75
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True/False: The queue data structure is implemented as FIFO structure (first in first out)
:
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 76
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Recursion is when an algorithm uses a series of loop structures to repeat an operation until the answer has been computed.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 77
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Which of the following is NOT one of the design patterns outlined in our text.
Select one:
a. Flyweight
b. Visitor
c. Composite
d. Synergy
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The correct answer is: Synergy
Question 78
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In a stack which option would access the 3rd element from the top of the stack S
Option 1. S.push(-1);
Option 2. S.dequeue(-3);
Option 3. S.pop();
S.pop();
S.pop();
Option 4. S.pop(n-3);
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 3
Question 79
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
/** @return The position of an element in sorted array A with value k. If k is not in A,return A.length. */
static int binary(int[] A, int k) {
int l = -1; // Set l and r
int r = A.length; // beyond array bounds
while (l+1 != r) { // Stop when l, r meet
int i = (l+r)/2; // Check middle
if (k < A[i]) r = i; // In left half
if (k == A[i]) return i; // Found it
if (k > A[i]) l = i; // In right half
}
return A.length; // Search value not in A
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( log n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 80
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A traversal that visits the left subtree, then the node, and then the right subtree is called:

Select one:
a. Preorder Traversal
b. Postorder Traversal
c. Inorder Traversal
d. Outoforder Traversal
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The correct answer is: Inorder Traversal
Question 81
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Inserting or removing an item at position n-1 within a linked list has the same cost in terms  ( n ) time as the same operation in an array based implementation of a list.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 82
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
if (a.length > 0) {
return a[a.length – 1];
} else {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
Option 1. O( 1 )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
Explanation: Here n = a.length, and T(n) = 1.
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 83
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The most significant difference between the B+-Tree and the BST is that the B+-Tree stores records only at the leaf nodes.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 84
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According to textbook by Shaffer, a heap data structure has two properties which are:
Select one:
a. every node stores a value less than or equal to that of its children and it is a complete binary tree
b. it is a min-heap and is partially ordered
c. it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
d. it is a priority queue and is in Θ( n )
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The correct answer is: it is a complete binary tree and the values stored in it are partially ordered
Question 85
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
static int function ( n ) {
for (k=0; k<n; k++)
A[k] = k;
return A[k];
}
Choice 1. Θ ( n log n )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. O( n )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 86
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A linear index is an index file organized as a sequence of key/pointer pairs where the keys are in a sorter order.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 87
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An exchange sort is one where: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Records in an unsorted list are moved to a sorted list
b. Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
c. An inversion is executed
d. The sorting algorithm is said to be stable
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The correct answer is: Adjacent records in the list and compared and exchanged
Question 88
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What is the role of the pivot in a quicksort algorithm?
Select one:
a. It identifies the maxkey value
b. It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
c. It defines the sequence for merging in the sort
d. It indicates the index of the current record being compared
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The correct answer is: It specifies the point where the array will be subdivided into partitions and each partition then sorted
Question 89
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If A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={4, 5, 6}, find A∪ B .
Select one:
a. {1,2,3,4,4,5,6}
b. {4}
c. {x | x is all positive integers}
d. {1,2,3,4,5,6}
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The correct answer is: {1,2,3,4,5,6}
Question 90
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Setting the dirty bit causes what action to be performed on a block: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. It is deleted because it is no longer consistent
b. It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
c. Refreshes the data by re-reading the block
d. It cleans the cache by flushing all data from the cache
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The correct answer is: It flushes or writes the block out to the disk
Question 91
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Which of the following items is NOT true for Array-Based Lists (please select the best choice):
Choice 1. Insertion and deletion operations are ( n )
Choice 2. Direct access of an item in the array is ( 1 )
Choice 3. Space used grows dynamically as the array is populated
Choice 4. Array contains wasted space if array positions are not full
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 3
Question 92
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The lower bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
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The correct answer is: Choice 2
Question 93
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A sequential tree can be represented using a bit vector?
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 94
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The list of children approach uses both pointers and an array structure to represent the tree.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 95
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The upper bound for the growth of the Algorithms running time is represented by (please select the best answer):
1. Big Oh (O)
2. Big Omega (Ω)
3. Big Theta (Θ)
4. Exponential growth
Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Choice 1
Question 96
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A traversal of a general tree that traverses the roots subtrees from left to right, then visits the root is called a preorder traversal.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 97
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For the following code fragment, select the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
// Towers of Hanoi
static void solveHanoi(int disks, char fromPole, char toPole, char withPole) {
if (disks >= 1) {
solveHanoi(disks-1, fromPole, withPole, toPole);
moveDisk(fromPole, toPole);
solveHanoi(disks-1, withPole, toPole, fromPole);
}
}
static void moveDisk(char fromPole, char toPole) {
moves++;
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
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The correct answer is: Option 2
Question 98
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The full binary tree theorem states “the number of leaves in an empty full binary tree is one more than the number of internal nodes”
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 99
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The quicksort is typically slower than the heapsort by a constant factor.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 100
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A sort where the list is divided into halves, the halves sorted and these two halves are merged is called:
Select one:
a. Mergesort
b. Binary sort
c. Quicksort
d. Heapsort
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The correct answer is: Mergesort
Question 101
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An important advantage of the sequential tree implementation is that (select the best answer):
Select one:
a. It is an extremely shallow tree
b. The data structure can be transmitted between computers
c. It saves space because no pointers are stored
d. It uses dynamic nodes
Feedback
The correct answer is: It saves space because no pointers are stored
Question 102
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True/False: Big Theta (Θ) indicates that the Upper and Lower bounds of an algorithm are the same.
Select one:
True
False
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The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 103
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A solution is said to be efficient if it:
Select one:
a. Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
b. Executes faster than other solutions
c. Is completed in the fewest number of steps
d. Can be explained in the context of Big-Oh notation
Feedback
The correct answer is: Solves the problem within the required resource constraints
Question 104
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A finite set of one or more nodes such that there is one designated node call the root is a: (select the best answer)
Select one:
a. Parent root
b. a B+ tree data structure
c. Index
d. Tree
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The correct answer is: Tree
Question 105
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For the following code fragment, select the option that represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
System.out.println(a[i]);
}
Option 1. O( n )
Option 2. O( 2n )
Option 3. O( n log n )
Option 4. O( n2 )
Select one:
a. Option 1
b. Option 2
c. Option 3
d. Option 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Option 1
Question 106
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For the following code fragment, select the choice which represents the most appropriate asymptotic analysis:
function ( n ) {
sum2 = 0;
for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
for (j=1; j<=i; j++)
sum2++;
}
}
Choice 1. Ω ( 1 )
Choice 2. O( 2n )
Choice 3. Θ( n2 )
Choice 4. Ω( n2 )
(NOTE: code fragment is not intended to be functioning code)

Select one:
a. Choice 1
b. Choice 2
c. Choice 3
d. Choice 4
Feedback
The correct answer is: Choice 3

Advance Networking Data Security Quiz

CS 4404: ADVANCED NETWORKING AND DATA SECURITY

What is the purpose of the retransmission timer?

Select one:

  1. Timeouts when expected packet is not received
  2. Records reception times in packets
  3. Sets the retransmission timeout value
  4. is known as exponential backoff

 

The correct answer is: Timeouts when expected packet is not received

Question 2

Question text

TCP sends segments in bursts (or, groups of segments), every burst containing the number of segments limited by.

Select one:

  1. Packet size
  2. the current window size
  3. Segment size
  4. Burst speed

 

The correct answer is: the current window size

Question 3

Question text

TCP protocol determines the optimal window size by what method?

Select one:

  1. Predefined
  2. Dynamically
  3. Traffic analysis
  4. QoS

 

The correct answer is: Dynamically

Question 4

Question text

Which is not a method to introduce IPv4 to IPV6 to the public Internet?

Select one:

  1. Dual Stack
  2. Masking
  3. Tunneling
  4. Dual stack approach

 

The correct answer is: Masking

Question 5

Question text

Which routing protocol is a link-state routing protocol?

Select one:

  1. RIP
  2. OSPF
  3. BGP
  4. AS

 

The correct answer is: OSPF

Question 6

Question text

Which routing protocol is a link-state routing protocol?

Select one:

  1. RIP
  2. OSPF
  3. BGP
  4. AS

 

The correct answer is: OSPF

Question 7

Question text

The receive buffer is used to store in-order and out-of-order packets?

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 8

Question text

The IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Options header carries optional information for the routers that will be visited and must not be examined by every node along a packet’s delivery path?

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 9

Question text

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a not distance-vector routing protocol?

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 10

Question text

Network Address Translation (NAT) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard used to allow multiple computers on a private network (using private address ranges such as 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16) to share a single, globally routable IPv4 address.?

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Which is NOT a network topology?

Select one:

  1. Centralized
  2. Decentralized
  3. Star
  4. Distributed

 

The correct answer is: Star

Question 2

Question text

Which layer is known as the “physical layer” of the reference architecture?

Select one:

  1. Physical
  2. Link
  3. End to end
  4. Network

 

The correct answer is: Physical

Question 3

Question text

Packets from higher layers become nested inside the packets of higher layers as they are passed down the protocol stack

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 4

Question text

Lost or damaged packets should be:

Select one:

  1. Discarded
  2. Retransmitted
  3. Stored
  4. Forwarded

 

The correct answer is: Retransmitted

Question 5

Question text

Real-world systems are designed with sub-peak capacity for economic reasons. As a result, they experience congestion and delays during off-peak usage periods.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 6

Question text

Which of the following is NOT A type of delay associated with packet transmissions.

Select one:

  1. Processing
  2. Transmission
  3. Propagation
  4. Routing

 

The correct answer is: Routing

Question 7

Question text

Which retransmission strategy is the most efficient?

Select one:

  1. Go back
  2. Stop and wait
  3. Selective Repeat
  4. Sliding window

 

The correct answer is: Sliding window

Question 8

Question text

Broadcast links allow connecting multiple network nodes via the same link. Hence, when one node transmits, all or most other nodes on the link can hear the transmission. If two or more nodes are transmitting simultaneously, their signals will interfere with each other, which technique will NOT avoid this situation?

Select one:

  1. Timed transmissions
  2. Listening before speaking
  3. Statistical Multiplexing
  4. Retransmission of corrupted information

 

The correct answer is: Statistical Multiplexing

Question 9

Question text

The amount of processing required at the bridge, as opposed to a switch is minimal because bridged networks use the same protocols.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 10

Question text

Which of the following is an example of dotted decimal notation for IP addresses:

Select one:

  1. 128 . 6 . 29 . 131
  2. 10000000 00000110 00011101 10000011
  3. my.uopeople.org/
  4. 192.168.1.1/24

 

The correct answer is: 128 . 6 . 29 . 131

Web Programming Quiz

CS 3305: WEB PROGRAMMING 2

What is the name given to Internet technologies supporting user collaboration and data exchange?

Select one:

  1. Web 2.0
  2. SQL Server
  3. Mobile technology
  4. Android

 

The correct answer is: Web 2.0

Question 2

Question text

What are advantages of scripted applications over compiled applications? Choose all that apply.

Select one or more:

  1. performance
  2. readability
  3. maintainability
  4. functionality

 

The correct answer is: readability, maintainability

Question 3

Question text

What are examples of a scripted language? Choose all that apply.

Select one or more:

  1. C++
  2. PHP
  3. Perl
  4. Objective-C

 

The correct answer is: PHP, Perl

Question 4

Question text

Which database in the list is Open Source?

Select one:

  1. SQL Server
  2. MySQL
  3. Oracle
  4. Apache

 

The correct answer is: MySQL

Question 5

Question text

What is a good example of static Internet content?

Select one:

  1. CNN news page
  2. Yahoo home page
  3. Facebook Wall
  4. None of the above

 

The correct answer is: None of the above

Question 6

Question text

True or False: Most of the web sites today are Web 2.0.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 7

Question text

True or False: Server-side programming allows users to login to web sites and generate content each time the page is visited.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 8

Question text

True or False: Server-side programming uses some of the same languages as client-side (workstation) programming.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 9

Question text

Select an example of a server-side programming language:

Select one:

  1. JavaScript
  2. Perl
  3. HTML
  4. CSS

 

The correct answer is: Perl

Question 10

Question text

The speed of writing server code is increased when:

Select one:

  1. The developer receives immediate upon making changes
  2. The software is compiled before it is executed
  3. The developer uses discussion forums to debug code
  4. The software interpreted and error reporting is turned off

 

The correct answer is: The developer receives immediate  upon making changes

 

What program can be used on a Windows computer to access a command prompt on a Unix/Linux server?

Select one:

  1. putty.exe
  2. SQL Server
  3. cmd
  4. Internet Explorer

 

The correct answer is: putty.exe

Question 2

Question text

What commands can be used on a Linux server?

Select one or more:

  1. putty.exe
  2. ls
  3. make
  4. Click on Start button

 

The correct answer is: ls, make

Question 3

Question text

What are examples of a scripted language? Choose all that apply.

Select one or more:

  1. C++
  2. PHP
  3. Perl
  4. Objective-C

 

The correct answer is: PHP, Perl

Question 4

Question text

Which system is an example of an Open Source database?

Select one:

  1. SQL Server
  2. MySQL
  3. Oracle
  4. Apache

 

The correct answer is: MySQL

Question 5

Question text

What Linux command downloads source code?

Select one:

  1. mput
  2. get
  3. Internet Explorer
  4. wget

 

The correct answer is: wget

Question 6

Question text

True or False: Source code can be executed.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 7

Question text

True or False: Software can be compiled at the command prompt.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 8

Question text

True or False: Apache is called httpd on a Linux server.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 9

Question text

What is the most common extension for a source code package?

Select one:

  1. .zip
  2. .tgz
  3. .txt
  4. .os

 

The correct answer is: .tgz

Question 10

Question text

What command extracts a tarball archive file?

Select one:

  1. tar -xzvf
  2. tar -czvf
  3. tar -out
  4. tar -v

 

The correct answer is: tar –xzvf

 

What does PHP stand for?

Select one:

  1. PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
  2. Private Home Page
  3. Personal Home Page
  4. Personal Hypertext Processor

 

The correct answer is: PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor

Question 2

Question text

PHP server scripts are surrounded by what delimiters?

Select one:

  1. <&></&>
  2. <?PHP  ?>
  3. <?PHP > </?>

 

The correct answer is: <?PHP  ?>

Question 3

Question text

How do you write “Hello World” in PHP?

Select one:

  1. Document.Write(“Hello World”);
  2. echo “Hello World”;
  3. “Hello World”
  4. system.out.println(“Hello World”);

 

Your answer is incorrect.

The correct answer is: echo “Hello World”;

Question 4

Question text

All variables in PHP start with which symbol?

Select one:

  1. &
  2. $
  3. !

 

The correct answer is: $

Question 5

Question text

What is the correct way to end a PHP statement?

Select one:

  1. </php>
  2. :
  3. .
  4. ;

 

The correct answer is: ;

Question 6

Question text

True or False:The PHP syntax is similar to many languages including C++ and Java, which makes it easy to learn for programmers:

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 7

Question text

True or False: When using the POST method, variables are displayed in the URL.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘False’.

Question 8

Question text

True or False: In PHP you can use both single quotes ( ‘ ‘ ) and double quotes ( ” ” ) for strings.

Select one:

True

False

 

The correct answer is ‘True’.

Question 9

Question text

The PHP syntax is most similar to:

Select one:

  1. JavaScript
  2. Perl and C
  3. HTML
  4. CSS

 

The correct answer is: Perl and C

Question 10

Question text

How do you get information from a form that is submitted using the “get” method?

Select one:

  1. $_GET[];
  2. Request.Form;
  3. Request.QueryString;
  4. .getParameter();

 

The correct answer is: $_GET[];

Question 11

Question text

What is the correct way to create a function in PHP?

Select one:

  1. new_function myFunction()
  2. function myFunction()
  3. create myFunction()
  4. create myFunction(function)

 

The correct answer is: function myFunction()

Question 12

Question text

What is the correct way to add 1 to the $count variable?

Select one:

  1. $count =+1
  2. ++count
  3. $count++;
  4. count++;

 

The correct answer is: $count++;

Question 13

Question text

What is a correct way to add a comment in PHP?

Select one:

  1. <comment> </comment>
  2. <!– –>
  3. *\ *\
  4. /* */

 

The correct answer is: /* */

Question 14

Question text

Identify a valid PHP variable:

Select one:

  1. x
  2. x$
  3. $x
  4. $x$

 

The correct answer is: $x

Question 15

Question text

PHP script can perform the following functions:

Select one:

  1. Generate an email to one or more receipients.
  2. Insert data into a database
  3. Display data from a database
  4. All of the above

 

The correct answer is: All of the above

Software Engineering Quiz

Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
Question 2

Question text
Temporal Metrics include all but the following except:
Select one:
a. Environmental Metrics
b. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
c. Remediation Level (RL)
d. Report Confidence (RC)

The correct answer is: Environmental Metrics
Question 3

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires Business Entity Analysis?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 4

Question text
See Figure 12-17; Which subdomain is responsible for service objects such as Define logical data access control and application presentation.
Select one:
a. Data.
b. Human.
c. Software.
d. Hardware/Operating System.

The correct answer is: Data.
Question 5

Question text
True or False: The purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
True or False:Risk is the relative impact that an exploited vulnerability would have to a user’s environment.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
According to Table 13-5; Which methodology is MOST predictable and consistent:

Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 8

Question text
The _______ supports and sells the goals of the project throughout the organization:
Select one:
a. Project Manager
b. Sponsor
c. Champion
d. User

The correct answer is: Champion
Question 9

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 10

Question text
Jenkins (2005) listed the mythical man month diagram how many interfaces exist for a 5 person project.
Select one:
a. 1
b. 3
c. 6
d. 10

The correct answer is: 6
Question 11

Question text
FIGURE 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 12

Question text
All listed below are examples of stakeholders with the exception of:
Select one:
a. End user
b. Programmer
c. Executive
d. Expert

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 13

Question text
True or False: In this diagram the activity production phase 1 can begin before specify requirements has completed.

Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 14

Question text
True or False: Both ADW and IEF are CASE tools.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented methods assume that, since data are unstable and processes are, data should be the main focus of activities.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
Which of the following is NOT an element of a project plan:
Select one:
a. What location is involved
b. When it needs to be done by
c. Who is to do it
d. How it is to be achieved

The correct answer is: What location is involved
Question 17

Question text
True or False: The two major activities of data modeling are the creation and refinement of an enemy-relationship diagram (ERD) and entity structure analysis.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 18

Question text
True or False: CASE tools can ONLY be used in single user versions and NOT multiuser.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
A __________ is written by the PM and the SE and used to advertise a project to vendors to bid on.
Select one:
a. Bidding document
b. Project request
c. Request for bid
d. Request for proposal (RFP)

The correct answer is: Request for proposal (RFP)
Question 20

Question text
In “FIGURE 10-52 Example of Process Hierarchy Diagram,” which of the following is NOT one of the four sub processes of sales?

Select one:
a. Data fulfillment
b. Prospect maintenance
c. Data security
d. Inventory fulfillment

The correct answer is: Data fulfillment
Question 21

Question text
An important part of the maintainability is to make all which of the following available:
Select one:
a. Project documentation
b. Design documentation
c. Supporting material
d. All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above
Question 22

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 23

Question text
Two methods of analyzing methodology classes are:
Select one:
a. Information systems methodology framework
b. Humphrey’s maturity framework
c. Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
Question 24

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 25

Question text
True or False: Cohesion is a measure of the external strength of a module with the notion that maximal, or functional, cohesion is the goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 26

Question text
True or False: Vulnerability is a bug, flaw, weakness, or exposure of an application, system, device, or service that could lead to a failure of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 27

Question text
A ____ test is performed for each of the smallest units of code?
Select one:
a. Regression
b. System
c. Integration
d. Unit

The correct answer is: Unit
Question 28

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 29

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 30

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented design uses data as the basis for clustering processes, building databases, and identifying.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 31

Question text
True or False: The scope triangle is NOT also called the quality triangle.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 32

Question text
In “FIGURE 9-24 Decomposition for Customer and Video Maintenance Remove Repeating Groups,” which processes are decomposed?
Select one or more:
a. Rental/Return
b. Accounting
c. Purchasing
d. Personnel / payroll

The correct answer is: Rental/Return, Purchasing
Question 33

Question text
Horizontal (or Subset) Data Partitioning:
Select one:
a. Complete ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored with different data in more than one location.
b. Data are copied in more than one location.
c. Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
d. Different data are completely stored in more than one location.
Some data may be accessed by remote sites.

The correct answer is: Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
Question 34

Question text
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 35

Question text
True or False: The purpose of the regression test is to ensure that the changes cause the application to regress to a functional state, that is, that the changes do introduce errors into the processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 36

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 37

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 38

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 39

Question text
True or False: White-box testing evaluates specific execute item logic to guarantee its proper functioning.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 40

Question text
In the following development project schedule what is the deliverable for the acceptance testing phase:

Select one:
a. Project proposal
b. Requirements Spec
c. Alpha
d. Release system

The correct answer is: Release system
Question 41

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 42

Question text
Which is NOT a phase of project lifecycle (PLC)?
Select one:
a. Analysis and Design
b. Project Initiation
c. System Retirement
d. Preparation for Software Engineering

The correct answer is: System Retirement
Question 43

Question text
True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 44

Question text
The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is an open framework that addresses what issue?
Select one:
a. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate software platforms
b. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware platforms
c. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
Question 45

Question text
Legacy Systems are in what phase?
Select one:
a. design
b. installation
c. operations
d. maintenance

The correct answer is: maintenance
Question 46

Question text
Environmental Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
b. Target Distribution (TD)
c. Security Requirements (CR, IR, AR)
d. Temporal vector’s

The correct answer is: Temporal vector’s
Question 47

Question text
The process diagram defines the hardware environment and shows process assignments to software.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 48

Question text
Software engineers are involved in these activities in which correct order:
Select one:
a. Development, operation, maintenance or retirement
b. Operation, development, retirement and maintenance
c. Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
d. Operation, development, maintenance and retirement

The correct answer is: Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
Question 49

Question text
A __________work product is a product that is considered complete and that is the basis for other, current work by the project development team.
Select one:
a. Baseline
b. Change request
c. checklist
d. Change Control File

The correct answer is: Baseline
Question 50

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include which work product?
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 2

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires human interface guidelines?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Object
Question 3

Question text
The video store case study in chapter 2 includes requirements for customer, video and ___________.
Select one:
a. Rental Processing
b. Software
c. Hardware
d. Networks

The correct answer is: Rental Processing
Question 4

Question text
True/False: Booch diagram are used to summarize the objects-both application and service – and their interactions.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
Legacy Systems are in what phase?
Select one:
a. design
b. installation
c. operations
d. maintenance

The correct answer is: maintenance
Question 7

Question text
True or False: Encapsulated Objects can have both Public or Private Parts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
True or False: The purpose of the regression test is to ensure that the changes cause the application to regress to a functional state, that is, that the changes do introduce errors into the processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
There are five rules of scheduling; which of the following is NOT one of them:
Select one:
a. Eliminate uncertainty wherever you can
b. Pick the right level of granularity
c. Take a vacation
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Take a vacation
Question 10

Question text
The list below are useful terms in expressing requirements specifications and can be abbreviated to stand for:

Select one:
a. START
b. STOP
c. SMART
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: SMART
Question 11

Question text
A __________ is written by the PM and the SE and used to advertise a project to vendors to bid on.
Select one:
a. Bidding document
b. Project request
c. Request for bid
d. Request for proposal (RFP)

The correct answer is: Request for proposal (RFP)
Question 12

Question text
True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 14

Question text
True or False: White-box testing evaluates specific execute item logic to guarantee its proper functioning.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
Jenkins (2005) listed the mythical man month diagram how many interfaces exist for a 5 person project.
Select one:
a. 1
b. 3
c. 6
d. 10

The correct answer is: 6
Question 17

Question text
All listed below are examples of stakeholders with the exception of:
Select one:
a. End user
b. Programmer
c. Executive
d. Expert

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 18

Question text
The _______ supports and sells the goals of the project throughout the organization:
Select one:
a. Project Manager
b. Sponsor
c. Champion
d. User

The correct answer is: Champion
Question 19

Question text
True or False: In this diagram the activity production phase 1 can begin before specify requirements has completed.

Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 20

Question text
In the following development project schedule what is the deliverable for the acceptance testing phase:

Select one:
a. Project proposal
b. Requirements Spec
c. Alpha
d. Release system

The correct answer is: Release system
Question 21

Question text
The major activities of structured design are all except:
Select one:
a. Develop program specifications
b. Transform or transaction analysis of DFD
c. Define the logical database
d. Refine and complete structure chart

The correct answer is: Define the logical database
Question 22

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 23

Question text
Which is NOT a phase of project lifecycle (PLC)?
Select one:
a. Analysis and Design
b. Project Initiation
c. System Retirement
d. Preparation for Software Engineering

The correct answer is: System Retirement
Question 24

Question text
True or False: Information systems methodology framework is NOT used to compare methodologies.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 25

Question text
True or False: Booch diagrams are also called module structure diagrams.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 26

Question text
True or False: The two major activities of data modeling are the creation and refinement of an enemy-relationship diagram (ERD) and entity structure analysis.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 27

Question text
The R in CRUD matrix stands for:
Select one:
a. Repeat
b. Return
c. Report
d. Retrieve

The correct answer is: Retrieve
Question 28

Question text
Table 12-1 Object-Oriented Design Documentation; how many (tables and diagrams):
Select one:
a. 3,3
b. 4,3
c. 4,4
d. 3,4

The correct answer is: 3,4
Question 29

Question text
True or False: Vulnerability is a bug, flaw, weakness, or exposure of an application, system, device, or service that could lead to a failure of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 30

Question text
True or False: The means to store unlimited, continuously growing databases currently are called data marts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 31

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 32

Question text
See Figure 2: CVSS Metrics and Equations. Which values are considered optional when reflecting the risk posed by the vulnerability to a user’s environment?
Select one:
a. Base metrics plus vector
b. Temporal metrics
c. Environmental metrics
d. B and C

The correct answer is: B and C
Question 33

Question text
True or False: Cohesion is a measure of the external strength of a module with the notion that maximal, or functional, cohesion is the goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 34

Question text
A ____ test is performed for each of the smallest units of code?
Select one:
a. Regression
b. System
c. Integration
d. Unit

The correct answer is: Unit
Question 35

Question text
Jenkins (2005) stated that the critical path is defined as:
Select one:
a. It is this path that you can traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
b. It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
c. The critical path represents the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project
d. The critical path represents a set of tasks to be complete for your project

The correct answer is: It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
Question 36

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 37

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 38

Question text
True or False:Risk is the relative impact that an exploited vulnerability would have to a user’s environment.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 39

Question text
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 40

Question text
Project Managers must exhibit all these qualities except:
Select one:
a. Understanding
b. Trust
c. Budgeting
d. Empathy

The correct answer is: Budgeting
Question 41

Question text
How many types in “FIGURE 9-27 Types of Process Dependency Connections?”
Select one:
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Five

The correct answer is: Five
Question 42

Question text
The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is an open framework that addresses what issue?
Select one:
a. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate software platforms
b. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware platforms
c. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
Question 43

Question text
True or False: The Humphrey’s maturity frameworks were developed for the Department of Defense as a self-assessment framework that identifies levels of computing and application development process maturity.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 44

Question text
An important part of the maintainability is to make all which of the following available:
Select one:
a. Project documentation
b. Design documentation
c. Supporting material
d. All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above
Question 45

Question text
True or False: There are three basic types of business programs: report, edit/validate, and file update.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 46

Question text
Potential distribution of the application. The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 47

Question text
Horizontal (or Subset) Data Partitioning:
Select one:
a. Complete ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored with different data in more than one location.
b. Data are copied in more than one location.
c. Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
d. Different data are completely stored in more than one location.
Some data may be accessed by remote sites.

The correct answer is: Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
Question 48

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
Question 49

Question text
“TABLE 8-9 CASE Tools for Structured Design Program” code include all but:

Select one:
a. The Developer
b. Maestro
c. Oracle
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Oracle
Question 50

Question text
The Base Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Access Vector
b. Authentication
c. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
d. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Impacts

The correct answer is: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 4

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented design uses data as the basis for clustering processes, building databases, and identifying.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
“FIGURE 9-7 ABC Video Partial Functional Decomposition of Purchasing” is a:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Process flow
c. Function
d. Data flow

The correct answer is: Process flow
Question 6

Question text
True/False: Object oriented design has seven steps.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
True or False: Sometimes referred to as a ‘business case’, the project proposal states the lowest level goals in a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
Two methods of analyzing methodology classes are:
Select one:
a. Information systems methodology framework
b. Humphrey’s maturity framework
c. Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
Question 9

Question text
True or False: Encapsulated Objects can have both Public or Private Parts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10

Question text
Environmental Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
b. Target Distribution (TD)
c. Security Requirements (CR, IR, AR)
d. Temporal vector’s

The correct answer is: Temporal vector’s
Question 11

Question text
The purpose of the Sample Change Request Impact Form:
Select one:
a. Document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change
b. The PM and SE define the schedule and cost.
c. The PM and SE redefine the schedule and the cost.
d. impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.

The correct answer is: impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.
Question 12

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 13

Question text
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 14

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires Business Entity Analysis?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 15

Question text
A __________work product is a product that is considered complete and that is the basis for other, current work by the project development team.
Select one:
a. Baseline
b. Change request
c. checklist
d. Change Control File

The correct answer is: Baseline
Question 16

Question text
True or False: The product or project can be accepted even if acceptance testing is not complete.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 17

Question text
True or False: Program specifications document the program’s purpose, process requirements, the logical and physical data definitions, input and output formats, screen layouts, constraints, and special processing considerations that might complicate the program.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 18

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: Both ADW and IEF are CASE tools.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented methods assume that, since data are unstable and processes are, data should be the main focus of activities.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 21

Question text
Which of the following is NOT an element of a project plan:
Select one:
a. What location is involved
b. When it needs to be done by
c. Who is to do it
d. How it is to be achieved

The correct answer is: What location is involved
Question 22

Question text
The results of structured design are all BUT the following:
Select one:
a. programming specifications
b. plans for testing
c. conversation
d. training and installation

The correct answer is: conversation
Question 23

Question text
Temporal Metrics include all but the following except:
Select one:
a. Environmental Metrics
b. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
c. Remediation Level (RL)
d. Report Confidence (RC)

The correct answer is: Environmental Metrics
Question 24

Question text
True or False: The purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 25

Question text
True or False: In “FIGURE 9-17 ABC Rental Processing-First-Cut Entity-Relationship Diagram,” the three entities are: Customer, Video, Rental and Request.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 26

Question text
Software engineers are involved in these activities in which correct order:
Select one:
a. Development, operation, maintenance or retirement
b. Operation, development, retirement and maintenance
c. Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
d. Operation, development, maintenance and retirement

The correct answer is: Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
Question 27

Question text
True or False: Figure 7-9 Example of Complex Context Diagram describes a inflows context called patients claims processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 28

Question text
In “FIGURE 9-24 Decomposition for Customer and Video Maintenance Remove Repeating Groups,” which processes are decomposed?
Select one or more:
a. Rental/Return
b. Accounting
c. Purchasing
d. Personnel / payroll

The correct answer is: Rental/Return, Purchasing
Question 29

Question text
True or False: The scope triangle is NOT also called the quality triangle.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 30

Question text
Which goal is stated in a clear and concise manner and more likely to inspire team members to achieve it?
Select one:
a. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that just about gets the job done”
b. “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
c. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that almost gets the job done”
d. “To deliver a sales and marketing system on time”

The correct answer is: “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
Question 31

Question text
True or False: Data requirements for applications include: input, output, storage, and retrieval.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 32

Question text
See Table 13-2; which methodology does not require Data Relationships knowledge?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Process
Question 33

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 34

Question text
Figure 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 35

Question text
An _______ is an entity from the real world whose processes and attributes (that is, the data) are modeled in a computerized application.
Select one:
a. abstract data type (ADT)
b. Class/objects
c. Object
d. class

The correct answer is: Object
Question 36

Question text
Useful tools for software engineers DO NOT include:
Select one:
a. process dependencies
b. synchronization matrix
c. process hierarchies
d. object diagrams.

The correct answer is: synchronization matrix
Question 37

Question text
True or False: Threat is the likelihood or frequency of a harmful event occurring.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 38

Question text
True or False: Traceability is proven at test or implementation time and validates that a requirement has been satisfied.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 39

Question text
The critical path of a project is defined as:
Select one:
a. Shortest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.
b. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
c. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the least time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project can complete on time.
d. Longest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.

The correct answer is: The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
Question 40

Question text
Project teams characterize risk by impact and likelihood. Which quadrant is high impact and high likelihood?

Select one:
a. Major
b. Critical
c. Minor
d. Major

The correct answer is: Critical
Question 41

Question text
True or False: Booch diagrams are also called module structure diagrams.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 42

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a group of CVSS?
Select one:
a. Base
b. Temporal
c. Environmental
d. Human

The correct answer is: Human
Question 43

Question text
According to Table 13-5; Which methodology is MOST predictable and consistent:

Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 44

Question text
The purpose of the system test is:
Select one:
a. demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in the actual production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
b. is a system test and NOT a documentation test.
c. test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
d. ensure that the changes do not cause the application to regress to a nonfunctional state, that is, that the changes do not introduce errors into the processing.

The correct answer is: test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
Question 45

Question text
Restructuring is:
Select one:
a. the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
b. is the reverse analysis of an old application to conform to a new methodology, usually Information Engineering or object orientation.
c. is also known as reverse engineering. Rebuilding is the retirement and redevelopment of an application.
d. the redevelopment of an application with a bridge to the old application.

The correct answer is: the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
Question 46

Question text
True or False: The Temporal group reflects the intrinsic qualities of a vulnerability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 47

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 48

Question text
True or False: In many projects the change management system is NOT linked to (or is part of) a defect tracking.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 49

Question text
In “FIGURE 10-52 Example of Process Hierarchy Diagram,” which of the following is NOT one of the four sub processes of sales?

Select one:
a. Data fulfillment
b. Prospect maintenance
c. Data security
d. Inventory fulfillment

The correct answer is: Data fulfillment
Question 50

Question text
True or False: CASE tools can ONLY be used in single user versions and NOT multiuser.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
True or False: Data requirements for applications include: input, output, storage, and retrieval.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 2

Question text
The Project Manager’s job is to:
Select one:
a. Must understand the customer requirements for the team and keep the SE’s on track.
b. Leads the design, coding and testing effort. Decides which process to use (data, or object oriented design) and directs and reviews the SE2 products.
c. Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
d. Documents the figures, diagrams for process, data, or object oriented design.
e. Constructs schedule and milestones and keeps the PM informed and on schedule.

The correct answer is: Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
Question 3

Question text
True or False: White-box testing evaluates specific execute item logic to guarantee its proper functioning.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4

Question text
The process diagram defines the hardware environment and shows process assignments to software.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
In “FIGURE 9-24 Decomposition for Customer and Video Maintenance Remove Repeating Groups,” which processes are decomposed?
Select one or more:
a. Rental/Return
b. Accounting
c. Purchasing
d. Personnel / payroll

The correct answer is: Rental/Return, Purchasing
Question 7

Question text
True or False: Both ADW and IEF are CASE tools.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 8

Question text
True or False: The scope triangle is NOT also called the quality triangle.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
True or False: CASE tools can ONLY be used in single user versions and NOT multiuser.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10

Question text
FIGURE 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 11

Question text
Jenkins (2005) stated that the critical path is defined as:
Select one:
a. It is this path that you can traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
b. It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
c. The critical path represents the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project
d. The critical path represents a set of tasks to be complete for your project

The correct answer is: It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
Question 12

Question text
True or False: In many projects the change management system is NOT linked to (or is part of) a defect tracking.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented methods assume that, since data are unstable and processes are, data should be the main focus of activities.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 14

Question text
Restructuring is:
Select one:
a. the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
b. is the reverse analysis of an old application to conform to a new methodology, usually Information Engineering or object orientation.
c. is also known as reverse engineering. Rebuilding is the retirement and redevelopment of an application.
d. the redevelopment of an application with a bridge to the old application.

The correct answer is: the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
How many types in “FIGURE 9-27 Types of Process Dependency Connections?”
Select one:
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Five

The correct answer is: Five
Question 17

Question text
True or False: Threat is the likelihood or frequency of a harmful event occurring.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 18

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: The purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
Jenkins (2005) listed the mythical man month diagram how many interfaces exist for a 5 person project.
Select one:
a. 1
b. 3
c. 6
d. 10

The correct answer is: 6
Question 21

Question text
Figure 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 22

Question text
True or False: Figure 7-9 Example of Complex Context Diagram describes a inflows context called patients claims processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 23

Question text
According to Table 13-5; Which methodology is MOST predictable and consistent:

Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 24

Question text
Two methods of analyzing methodology classes are:
Select one:
a. Information systems methodology framework
b. Humphrey’s maturity framework
c. Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
Question 25

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented design uses data as the basis for clustering processes, building databases, and identifying.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 26

Question text
Potential distribution of the application. The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 27

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 28

Question text
An important part of the maintainability is to make all which of the following available:
Select one:
a. Project documentation
b. Design documentation
c. Supporting material
d. All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above
Question 29

Question text
“TABLE 8-9 CASE Tools for Structured Design Program” code include all but:

Select one:
a. The Developer
b. Maestro
c. Oracle
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Oracle
Question 30

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 31

Question text
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 32

Question text
The video store case study in chapter 2 includes requirements for customer, video and ___________.
Select one:
a. Rental Processing
b. Software
c. Hardware
d. Networks

The correct answer is: Rental Processing
Question 33

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires human interface guidelines?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Object
Question 34

Question text
The Base Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Access Vector
b. Authentication
c. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
d. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Impacts

The correct answer is: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
Question 35

Question text
Which goal is stated in a clear and concise manner and more likely to inspire team members to achieve it?
Select one:
a. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that just about gets the job done”
b. “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
c. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that almost gets the job done”
d. “To deliver a sales and marketing system on time”

The correct answer is: “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
Question 36

Question text
A ____ test is performed for each of the smallest units of code?
Select one:
a. Regression
b. System
c. Integration
d. Unit

The correct answer is: Unit
Question 37

Question text
True or False: The Temporal group reflects the intrinsic qualities of a vulnerability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 38

Question text
True or False: In this diagram the activity production phase 1 can begin before specify requirements has completed.

Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 39

Question text
Which is NOT a phase of project lifecycle (PLC)?
Select one:
a. Analysis and Design
b. Project Initiation
c. System Retirement
d. Preparation for Software Engineering

The correct answer is: System Retirement
Question 40

Question text
True/False: Booch diagram are used to summarize the objects-both application and service – and their interactions.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 41

Question text
True or False: In “FIGURE 9-17 ABC Rental Processing-First-Cut Entity-Relationship Diagram,” the three entities are: Customer, Video, Rental and Request.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 42

Question text
The major activities of structured design are all except:
Select one:
a. Develop program specifications
b. Transform or transaction analysis of DFD
c. Define the logical database
d. Refine and complete structure chart

The correct answer is: Define the logical database
Question 43

Question text
There are five rules of scheduling; which of the following is NOT one of them:
Select one:
a. Eliminate uncertainty wherever you can
b. Pick the right level of granularity
c. Take a vacation
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Take a vacation
Question 44

Question text
The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is an open framework that addresses what issue?
Select one:
a. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate software platforms
b. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware platforms
c. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
Question 45

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 46

Question text
The critical path of a project is defined as:
Select one:
a. Shortest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.
b. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
c. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the least time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project can complete on time.
d. Longest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.

The correct answer is: The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
Question 47

Question text
True or False:Risk is the relative impact that an exploited vulnerability would have to a user’s environment.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 48

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 49

Question text
True or False: The means to store unlimited, continuously growing databases currently are called data marts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 50

Question text
True or False: Sometimes referred to as a ‘business case’, the project proposal states the lowest level goals in a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.

 

True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 2

Question text
In the following development project schedule what is the deliverable for the acceptance testing phase:

Select one:
a. Project proposal
b. Requirements Spec
c. Alpha
d. Release system

The correct answer is: Release system
Question 3

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 4

Question text
Table 12-1 Object-Oriented Design Documentation; how many (tables and diagrams):
Select one:
a. 3,3
b. 4,3
c. 4,4
d. 3,4

The correct answer is: 3,4
Question 5

Question text
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 6

Question text
True or False: Information systems methodology framework is NOT used to compare methodologies.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
Software engineers are involved in these activities in which correct order:
Select one:
a. Development, operation, maintenance or retirement
b. Operation, development, retirement and maintenance
c. Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
d. Operation, development, maintenance and retirement

The correct answer is: Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
Question 8

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include which work product?
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 9

Question text
True or False: Figure 7-9 Example of Complex Context Diagram describes a inflows context called patients claims processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10

Question text
Temporal Metrics include all but the following except:
Select one:
a. Environmental Metrics
b. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
c. Remediation Level (RL)
d. Report Confidence (RC)

The correct answer is: Environmental Metrics
Question 11

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12

Question text
See Figure 12-17; Which subdomain is responsible for service objects such as Define logical data access control and application presentation.
Select one:
a. Data.
b. Human.
c. Software.
d. Hardware/Operating System.

The correct answer is: Data.
Question 13

Question text
True or False: Vulnerability is a bug, flaw, weakness, or exposure of an application, system, device, or service that could lead to a failure of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 14

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a group of CVSS?
Select one:
a. Base
b. Temporal
c. Environmental
d. Human

The correct answer is: Human
Question 15

Question text
All listed below are examples of stakeholders with the exception of:
Select one:
a. End user
b. Programmer
c. Executive
d. Expert

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 16

Question text
“FIGURE 9-7 ABC Video Partial Functional Decomposition of Purchasing” is a:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Process flow
c. Function
d. Data flow

The correct answer is: Process flow
Question 17

Question text
See Figure 2: CVSS Metrics and Equations. Which values are considered optional when reflecting the risk posed by the vulnerability to a user’s environment?
Select one:
a. Base metrics plus vector
b. Temporal metrics
c. Environmental metrics
d. B and C

The correct answer is: B and C
Question 18

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: There are three basic types of business programs: report, edit/validate, and file update.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
The results of structured design are all BUT the following:
Select one:
a. programming specifications
b. plans for testing
c. conversation
d. training and installation

The correct answer is: conversation
Question 21

Question text
True or False: Program specifications document the program’s purpose, process requirements, the logical and physical data definitions, input and output formats, screen layouts, constraints, and special processing considerations that might complicate the program.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 22

Question text
True or False: The product or project can be accepted even if acceptance testing is not complete.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 23

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 24

Question text
Environmental Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
b. Target Distribution (TD)
c. Security Requirements (CR, IR, AR)
d. Temporal vector’s

The correct answer is: Temporal vector’s
Question 25

Question text
The R in CRUD matrix stands for:
Select one:
a. Repeat
b. Return
c. Report
d. Retrieve

The correct answer is: Retrieve
Question 26

Question text
Useful tools for software engineers DO NOT include:
Select one:
a. process dependencies
b. synchronization matrix
c. process hierarchies
d. object diagrams.

The correct answer is: synchronization matrix
Question 27

Question text
True or False: The purpose of the regression test is to ensure that the changes cause the application to regress to a functional state, that is, that the changes do introduce errors into the processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 28

Question text
The _______ supports and sells the goals of the project throughout the organization:
Select one:
a. Project Manager
b. Sponsor
c. Champion
d. User

The correct answer is: Champion
Question 29

Question text
True or False: The Humphrey’s maturity frameworks were developed for the Department of Defense as a self-assessment framework that identifies levels of computing and application development process maturity.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 30

Question text
The purpose of the Sample Change Request Impact Form:
Select one:
a. Document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change
b. The PM and SE define the schedule and cost.
c. The PM and SE redefine the schedule and the cost.
d. impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.

The correct answer is: impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.
Question 31

Question text
A __________work product is a product that is considered complete and that is the basis for other, current work by the project development team.
Select one:
a. Baseline
b. Change request
c. checklist
d. Change Control File

The correct answer is: Baseline
Question 32

Question text
Legacy Systems are in what phase?
Select one:
a. design
b. installation
c. operations
d. maintenance

The correct answer is: maintenance
Question 33

Question text
See Table 13-2; which methodology does not require Data Relationships knowledge?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Process
Question 34

Question text
Project teams characterize risk by impact and likelihood. Which quadrant is high impact and high likelihood?

Select one:
a. Major
b. Critical
c. Minor
d. Major

The correct answer is: Critical
Question 35

Question text
The purpose of the system test is:
Select one:
a. demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in the actual production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
b. is a system test and NOT a documentation test.
c. test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
d. ensure that the changes do not cause the application to regress to a nonfunctional state, that is, that the changes do not introduce errors into the processing.

The correct answer is: test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
Question 36

Question text
A __________ is written by the PM and the SE and used to advertise a project to vendors to bid on.
Select one:
a. Bidding document
b. Project request
c. Request for bid
d. Request for proposal (RFP)

The correct answer is: Request for proposal (RFP)
Question 37

Question text
True or False: Traceability is proven at test or implementation time and validates that a requirement has been satisfied.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 38

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires Business Entity Analysis?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 39

Question text
True or False: Cohesion is a measure of the external strength of a module with the notion that maximal, or functional, cohesion is the goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 40

Question text
Project Managers must exhibit all these qualities except:
Select one:
a. Understanding
b. Trust
c. Budgeting
d. Empathy

The correct answer is: Budgeting
Question 41

Question text
In “FIGURE 10-52 Example of Process Hierarchy Diagram,” which of the following is NOT one of the four sub processes of sales?

Select one:
a. Data fulfillment
b. Prospect maintenance
c. Data security
d. Inventory fulfillment

The correct answer is: Data fulfillment
Question 42

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 43

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
Question 44

Question text
Which of the following is NOT an element of a project plan:
Select one:
a. What location is involved
b. When it needs to be done by
c. Who is to do it
d. How it is to be achieved

The correct answer is: What location is involved
Question 45

Question text
True or False: The two major activities of data modeling are the creation and refinement of an enemy-relationship diagram (ERD) and entity structure analysis.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 46

Question text
Horizontal (or Subset) Data Partitioning:
Select one:
a. Complete ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored with different data in more than one location.
b. Data are copied in more than one location.
c. Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
d. Different data are completely stored in more than one location.
Some data may be accessed by remote sites.

The correct answer is: Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
Question 47

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 48

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 49

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 50

Question text
The list below are useful terms in expressing requirements specifications and can be abbreviated to stand for:

Select one:
a. START
b. STOP
c. SMART
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: SMART
True or False:Risk is the relative impact that an exploited vulnerability would have to a user’s environment.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The Temporal group reflects the intrinsic qualities of a vulnerability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
All listed below are examples of stakeholders with the exception of:
Select one:
a. End user
b. Programmer
c. Executive
d. Expert

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 4

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented design uses data as the basis for clustering processes, building databases, and identifying.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 6

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 7

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 9

Question text
See Figure 12-17; Which subdomain is responsible for service objects such as Define logical data access control and application presentation.
Select one:
a. Data.
b. Human.
c. Software.
d. Hardware/Operating System.

The correct answer is: Data.
Question 10

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 11

Question text
Project teams characterize risk by impact and likelihood. Which quadrant is high impact and high likelihood?

Select one:
a. Major
b. Critical
c. Minor
d. Major

The correct answer is: Critical
Question 12

Question text
True or False: In this diagram the activity production phase 1 can begin before specify requirements has completed.

Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13

Question text
How many types in “FIGURE 9-27 Types of Process Dependency Connections?”
Select one:
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Five

The correct answer is: Five
Question 14

Question text
True or False: The scope triangle is NOT also called the quality triangle.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: The product or project can be accepted even if acceptance testing is not complete.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
Question 17

Question text
The R in CRUD matrix stands for:
Select one:
a. Repeat
b. Return
c. Report
d. Retrieve

The correct answer is: Retrieve
Question 18

Question text
True or False: Information systems methodology framework is NOT used to compare methodologies.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: White-box testing evaluates specific execute item logic to guarantee its proper functioning.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
The Base Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Access Vector
b. Authentication
c. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
d. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Impacts

The correct answer is: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
Question 21

Question text
True or False: The means to store unlimited, continuously growing databases currently are called data marts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 22

Question text
The major activities of structured design are all except:
Select one:
a. Develop program specifications
b. Transform or transaction analysis of DFD
c. Define the logical database
d. Refine and complete structure chart

The correct answer is: Define the logical database
Question 23

Question text
Two methods of analyzing methodology classes are:
Select one:
a. Information systems methodology framework
b. Humphrey’s maturity framework
c. Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
Question 24

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 25

Question text
FIGURE 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 26

Question text
A __________work product is a product that is considered complete and that is the basis for other, current work by the project development team.
Select one:
a. Baseline
b. Change request
c. checklist
d. Change Control File

The correct answer is: Baseline
Question 27

Question text
Horizontal (or Subset) Data Partitioning:
Select one:
a. Complete ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored with different data in more than one location.
b. Data are copied in more than one location.
c. Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
d. Different data are completely stored in more than one location.
Some data may be accessed by remote sites.

The correct answer is: Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
Question 28

Question text
Software engineers are involved in these activities in which correct order:
Select one:
a. Development, operation, maintenance or retirement
b. Operation, development, retirement and maintenance
c. Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
d. Operation, development, maintenance and retirement

The correct answer is: Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
Question 29

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 30

Question text
An important part of the maintainability is to make all which of the following available:
Select one:
a. Project documentation
b. Design documentation
c. Supporting material
d. All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above
Question 31

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 32

Question text
The purpose of the Sample Change Request Impact Form:
Select one:
a. Document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change
b. The PM and SE define the schedule and cost.
c. The PM and SE redefine the schedule and the cost.
d. impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.

The correct answer is: impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.
Question 33

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 34

Question text
True or False: CASE tools can ONLY be used in single user versions and NOT multiuser.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 35

Question text
Figure 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 36

Question text
True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 37

Question text
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 38

Question text
The critical path of a project is defined as:
Select one:
a. Shortest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.
b. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
c. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the least time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project can complete on time.
d. Longest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.

The correct answer is: The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
Question 39

Question text
Which is NOT a phase of project lifecycle (PLC)?
Select one:
a. Analysis and Design
b. Project Initiation
c. System Retirement
d. Preparation for Software Engineering

The correct answer is: System Retirement
Question 40

Question text
The process diagram defines the hardware environment and shows process assignments to software.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 41

Question text
True or False: Threat is the likelihood or frequency of a harmful event occurring.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 42

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 43

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 44

Question text
See Table 13-2; which methodology does not require Data Relationships knowledge?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Process
Question 45

Question text
The results of structured design are all BUT the following:
Select one:
a. programming specifications
b. plans for testing
c. conversation
d. training and installation

The correct answer is: conversation
Question 46

Question text
Which goal is stated in a clear and concise manner and more likely to inspire team members to achieve it?
Select one:
a. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that just about gets the job done”
b. “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
c. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that almost gets the job done”
d. “To deliver a sales and marketing system on time”

The correct answer is: “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
Question 47

Question text
Project Managers must exhibit all these qualities except:
Select one:
a. Understanding
b. Trust
c. Budgeting
d. Empathy

The correct answer is: Budgeting
Question 48

Question text
Temporal Metrics include all but the following except:
Select one:
a. Environmental Metrics
b. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
c. Remediation Level (RL)
d. Report Confidence (RC)

The correct answer is: Environmental Metrics
Question 49

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 50

Question text
“TABLE 8-9 CASE Tools for Structured Design Program” code include all but:

Select one:
a. The Developer
b. Maestro
c. Oracle
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Oracle
Which is NOT a phase of project lifecycle (PLC)?
Select one:
a. Analysis and Design
b. Project Initiation
c. System Retirement
d. Preparation for Software Engineering

The correct answer is: System Retirement
Question 2

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 3

Question text
Useful tools for software engineers DO NOT include:
Select one:
a. process dependencies
b. synchronization matrix
c. process hierarchies
d. object diagrams.

The correct answer is: synchronization matrix
Question 4

Question text
Software engineers are involved in these activities in which correct order:
Select one:
a. Development, operation, maintenance or retirement
b. Operation, development, retirement and maintenance
c. Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
d. Operation, development, maintenance and retirement

The correct answer is: Development, operation, maintenance and retirement
Question 5

Question text
True or False: Data requirements for applications include: input, output, storage, and retrieval.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
The _______ supports and sells the goals of the project throughout the organization:
Select one:
a. Project Manager
b. Sponsor
c. Champion
d. User

The correct answer is: Champion
Question 8

Question text
A __________ is written by the PM and the SE and used to advertise a project to vendors to bid on.
Select one:
a. Bidding document
b. Project request
c. Request for bid
d. Request for proposal (RFP)

The correct answer is: Request for proposal (RFP)
Question 9

Question text
The video store case study in chapter 2 includes requirements for customer, video and ___________.
Select one:
a. Rental Processing
b. Software
c. Hardware
d. Networks

The correct answer is: Rental Processing
Question 10

Question text
The critical path of a project is defined as:
Select one:
a. Shortest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.
b. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
c. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the least time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project can complete on time.
d. Longest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.

The correct answer is: The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 2

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 4

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
Figure 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 6

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 8

Question text
True or False: Figure 7-9 Example of Complex Context Diagram describes a inflows context called patients claims processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 9

Question text
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The two major activities of data modeling are the creation and refinement of an enemy-relationship diagram (ERD) and entity structure analysis.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
“FIGURE 9-7 ABC Video Partial Functional Decomposition of Purchasing” is a:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Process flow
c. Function
d. Data flow

The correct answer is: Process flow
Question 4

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 6

Question text
True or False: In “FIGURE 9-17 ABC Rental Processing-First-Cut Entity-Relationship Diagram,” the three entities are: Customer, Video, Rental and Request.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
In “FIGURE 9-24 Decomposition for Customer and Video Maintenance Remove Repeating Groups,” which processes are decomposed?
Select one or more:
a. Rental/Return
b. Accounting
c. Purchasing
d. Personnel / payroll

The correct answer is: Rental/Return, Purchasing
Question 8

Question text
How many types in “FIGURE 9-27 Types of Process Dependency Connections?”
Select one:
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Five

The correct answer is: Five
Question 9

Question text
True or False: Both ADW and IEF are CASE tools.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10

Question text
The R in CRUD matrix stands for:
Select one:
a. Repeat
b. Return
c. Report
d. Retrieve

The correct answer is: Retrieve
Potential distribution of the application. The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 2

Question text
Horizontal (or Subset) Data Partitioning:
Select one:
a. Complete ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored with different data in more than one location.
b. Data are copied in more than one location.
c. Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
d. Different data are completely stored in more than one location.
Some data may be accessed by remote sites.

The correct answer is: Partial ‘records’ or tuples of data are stored in more than one location.
Question 3

Question text
The Goal of 3NF Is to:
Select one:
a. Remove Repeating Groups
b. Remove Partial Key Dependencies
c. Remove Non-Repeating Groups
d. Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code

The correct answer is: Remove Nonkey Dependencies Program code
Question 4

Question text
The video store case study in chapter 2 includes requirements for customer, video and ___________.
Select one:
a. Rental Processing
b. Software
c. Hardware
d. Networks

The correct answer is: Rental Processing
Question 5

Question text
Useful tools for software engineers DO NOT include:
Select one:
a. process dependencies
b. synchronization matrix
c. process hierarchies
d. object diagrams.

The correct answer is: synchronization matrix
Question 6

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 7

Question text
True or False: Cohesion is a measure of the external strength of a module with the notion that maximal, or functional, cohesion is the goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
True or False: Data requirements for applications include: input, output, storage, and retrieval.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10

Question text
True or False: Both ADW and IEF are CASE tools.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 11

Question text
True or False: Software engineering is the systematic application of tools and techniques in the development of computer-based applications.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 14

Question text
True or False: The code validation file has the validation role for Process 1.2.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
Table III-3 discusses all but:
Select one:
a. Document
b. Review
c. Coding
d. Identification

The correct answer is: Coding
Question 17

Question text
In “FIGURE 9-24 Decomposition for Customer and Video Maintenance Remove Repeating Groups,” which processes are decomposed?
Select one or more:
a. Rental/Return
b. Accounting
c. Purchasing
d. Personnel / payroll

The correct answer is: Rental/Return, Purchasing
Question 18

Question text
True or False: Data-oriented methods assume that, since data are unstable and processes are, data should be the main focus of activities.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: Program specifications document the program’s purpose, process requirements, the logical and physical data definitions, input and output formats, screen layouts, constraints, and special processing considerations that might complicate the program.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a major phase of information engineering?
Select one:
a. Enterprise Analysis
b. Business Area Analysis
c. Business System Analysis
d. Construction

The correct answer is: Business System Analysis
An _______ is an entity from the real world whose processes and attributes (that is, the data) are modeled in a computerized application.
Select one:
a. abstract data type (ADT)
b. Class/objects
c. Object
d. class

The correct answer is: Object
Question 2

Question text
True or False: Encapsulated Objects can have both Public or Private Parts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
The Project Manager’s job is to:
Select one:
a. Must understand the customer requirements for the team and keep the SE’s on track.
b. Leads the design, coding and testing effort. Decides which process to use (data, or object oriented design) and directs and reviews the SE2 products.
c. Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
d. Documents the figures, diagrams for process, data, or object oriented design.
e. Constructs schedule and milestones and keeps the PM informed and on schedule.

The correct answer is: Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
Question 4

Question text
True or False: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools automate the hardware engineering process.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include which work product?
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 6

Question text
True/False: Object oriented design has seven steps.
Select one:
True
False

The response was correct.
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
Table 12-1 Object-Oriented Design Documentation; how many (tables and diagrams):
Select one:
a. 3,3
b. 4,3
c. 4,4
d. 3,4

The correct answer is: 3,4
Question 8

Question text
The process diagram defines the hardware environment and shows process assignments to software.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
See Figure 12-17; Which subdomain is responsible for service objects such as Define logical data access control and application presentation.
Select one:
a. Data.
b. Human.
c. Software.
d. Hardware/Operating System.

The correct answer is: Data.
Question 10

Question text
True/False: Booch diagram are used to summarize the objects-both application and service – and their interactions.
Select one:
True
False

Your answer was correct.
The correct answer is ‘True’.
A ____ test is performed for each of the smallest units of code?
Select one:
a. Regression
b. System
c. Integration
d. Unit

The correct answer is: Unit
Question 2

Question text
True or False: White-box testing evaluates specific execute item logic to guarantee its proper functioning.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 3

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 4

Question text
The purpose of the system test is:
Select one:
a. demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in the actual production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
b. is a system test and NOT a documentation test.
c. test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
d. ensure that the changes do not cause the application to regress to a nonfunctional state, that is, that the changes do not introduce errors into the processing.

The correct answer is: test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
Question 5

Question text
True or False: The purpose of the regression test is to ensure that the changes cause the application to regress to a functional state, that is, that the changes do introduce errors into the processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 6

Question text
True or False: There are three basic types of business programs: report, edit/validate, and file update.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 8

Question text
A __________work product is a product that is considered complete and that is the basis for other, current work by the project development team.
Select one:
a. Baseline
b. Change request
c. checklist
d. Change Control File

The correct answer is: Baseline
Question 9

Question text
The purpose of the Sample Change Request Impact Form:
Select one:
a. Document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change
b. The PM and SE define the schedule and cost.
c. The PM and SE redefine the schedule and the cost.
d. impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.

The correct answer is: impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.
Question 10

Question text
Restructuring is:
Select one:
a. the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
b. is the reverse analysis of an old application to conform to a new methodology, usually Information Engineering or object orientation.
c. is also known as reverse engineering. Rebuilding is the retirement and redevelopment of an application.
d. the redevelopment of an application with a bridge to the old application.

The correct answer is: the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
Jenkins (2005) stated that the critical path is defined as:
Select one:
a. It is this path that you can traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
b. It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
c. The critical path represents the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project
d. The critical path represents a set of tasks to be complete for your project

The correct answer is: It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The scope triangle is NOT also called the quality triangle.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
Jenkins (2005) listed the mythical man month diagram how many interfaces exist for a 5 person project.
Select one:
a. 1
b. 3
c. 6
d. 10

The correct answer is: 6
Question 4

Question text
True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 5

Question text
Which goal is stated in a clear and concise manner and more likely to inspire team members to achieve it?
Select one:
a. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that just about gets the job done”
b. “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
c. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that almost gets the job done”
d. “To deliver a sales and marketing system on time”

The correct answer is: “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
Question 6

Question text
True or False: Sometimes referred to as a ‘business case’, the project proposal states the lowest level goals in a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 7

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 8

Question text
All listed below are examples of stakeholders with the exception of:
Select one:
a. End user
b. Programmer
c. Executive
d. Expert

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 9

Question text
True or False: Traceability is proven at test or implementation time and validates that a requirement has been satisfied.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 10

Question text
The list below are useful terms in expressing requirements specifications and can be abbreviated to stand for:

Select one:
a. START
b. STOP
c. SMART
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: SMART
True or False: The product or project can be accepted even if acceptance testing is not complete.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 3

Question text
True or False: Traceability is proven at test or implementation time and validates that a requirement has been satisfied.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 4

Question text
True/False: Object oriented design has seven steps.
Select one:
True
False

The response was correct.
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
The purpose of the system test is:
Select one:
a. demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in the actual production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
b. is a system test and NOT a documentation test.
c. test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
d. ensure that the changes do not cause the application to regress to a nonfunctional state, that is, that the changes do not introduce errors into the processing.

The correct answer is: test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
Question 6

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 7

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include which work product?
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 8

Question text
True or False: Scope encompasses your vision, but NOT your goal.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 9

Question text
Which of the following is NOT an element of a project plan:
Select one:
a. What location is involved
b. When it needs to be done by
c. Who is to do it
d. How it is to be achieved

The correct answer is: What location is involved
Question 10

Question text
Jenkins (2005) stated that the critical path is defined as:
Select one:
a. It is this path that you can traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
b. It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
c. The critical path represents the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project
d. The critical path represents a set of tasks to be complete for your project

The correct answer is: It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
Question 11

Question text
True or False: Sometimes referred to as a ‘business case’, the project proposal states the lowest level goals in a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 12

Question text
An important part of the maintainability is to make all which of the following available:
Select one:
a. Project documentation
b. Design documentation
c. Supporting material
d. All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above
Question 13

Question text
A ____ test is performed for each of the smallest units of code?
Select one:
a. Regression
b. System
c. Integration
d. Unit

The correct answer is: Unit
Question 14

Question text
The process diagram defines the hardware environment and shows process assignments to software.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 15

Question text
Restructuring is:
Select one:
a. the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
b. is the reverse analysis of an old application to conform to a new methodology, usually Information Engineering or object orientation.
c. is also known as reverse engineering. Rebuilding is the retirement and redevelopment of an application.
d. the redevelopment of an application with a bridge to the old application.

The correct answer is: the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
Question 16

Question text
Based on this diagram return on investment (ROI) will be reached:

Select one:
a. 1 year
b. 2 years
c. 3 years
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: None of the above
Question 17

Question text
True or False: Encapsulated Objects can have both Public or Private Parts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 18

Question text
Boilerplate code means that the code:
Select one:
a. does vary from one program to another
b. is critical to maintaining applications at the functional level rather than at the code level.
c. does not vary from one program to another
d. meaning not changeable after it is accepted as complete, motivates users to be as complete in their thinking as possible

The correct answer is: does not vary from one program to another
Question 19

Question text
An _______ is an entity from the real world whose processes and attributes (that is, the data) are modeled in a computerized application.
Select one:
a. abstract data type (ADT)
b. Class/objects
c. Object
d. class

The correct answer is: Object
Question 20

Question text
In the following development project schedule what is the deliverable for the acceptance testing phase:

Select one:
a. Project proposal
b. Requirements Spec
c. Alpha
d. Release system

The correct answer is: Release system
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires human interface guidelines?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Object
Question 2

Question text
True or False: Information systems methodology framework is NOT used to compare methodologies.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires Business Entity Analysis?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 4

Question text
True or False: The Humphrey’s maturity frameworks were developed for the Department of Defense as a self-assessment framework that identifies levels of computing and application development process maturity.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 5

Question text
See Table 13-2; which methodology does not require Data Relationships knowledge?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Process
Question 6

Question text
According to Table 13-5; Which methodology is MOST predictable and consistent:

Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Data
Question 7

Question text
True or False: CASE tools can ONLY be used in single user versions and NOT multiuser.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 8

Question text
Legacy Systems are in what phase?
Select one:
a. design
b. installation
c. operations
d. maintenance

The correct answer is: maintenance
Question 9

Question text
True or False: The means to store unlimited, continuously growing databases currently are called data marts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 10

Question text
Two methods of analyzing methodology classes are:
Select one:
a. Information systems methodology framework
b. Humphrey’s maturity framework
c. Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
d. None of these

The correct answer is: Information systems methodology framework and Humphrey’s maturity framework
Which of the following is NOT a group of CVSS?
Select one:
a. Base
b. Temporal
c. Environmental
d. Human
Question 2

Question text
True or False: The Temporal group reflects the intrinsic qualities of a vulnerability.
Select one:
True
False
Question 3

Question text
The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is an open framework that addresses what issue?
Select one:
a. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate software platforms
b. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware platforms
c. Identifying and assessing vulnerabilities across many disparate hardware and software platforms
d. None of the above
Question 4

Question text
See Figure 2: CVSS Metrics and Equations. Which values are considered optional when reflecting the risk posed by the vulnerability to a user’s environment?
Select one:
a. Base metrics plus vector
b. Temporal metrics
c. Environmental metrics
d. B and C
Question 5

Question text
True or False: Vulnerability is a bug, flaw, weakness, or exposure of an application, system, device, or service that could lead to a failure of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
Select one:
True
False
Question 6

Question text
True or False: Threat is the likelihood or frequency of a harmful event occurring.
Select one:
True
False
Question 7

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True or False:Risk is the relative impact that an exploited vulnerability would have to a user’s environment.
Select one:
True
False
Question 8

Question text
Temporal Metrics include all but the following except:
Select one:
a. Environmental Metrics
b. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
c. Remediation Level (RL)
d. Report Confidence (RC)
Question 9

Question text
Environmental Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Collateral Damage Potential (CDP)
b. Target Distribution (TD)
c. Security Requirements (CR, IR, AR)
d. Temporal vector’s
Question 10

Question text
The Base Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Access Vector
b. Authentication
c. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
d. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Impacts
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 2

Question text
True or False: In “FIGURE 9-17 ABC Rental Processing-First-Cut Entity-Relationship Diagram,” the three entities are: Customer, Video, Rental and Request.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 3

Question text
Which goal is stated in a clear and concise manner and more likely to inspire team members to achieve it?
Select one:
a. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that just about gets the job done”
b. “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
c. “To deliver the cheapest system, in the shortest time, that almost gets the job done”
d. “To deliver a sales and marketing system on time”

The correct answer is: “To deliver the best sales and marketing system on the market”
Question 4

Question text
The major activities of structured design are all except:
Select one:
a. Develop program specifications
b. Transform or transaction analysis of DFD
c. Define the logical database
d. Refine and complete structure chart

The correct answer is: Define the logical database
Question 5

Question text
True or False: Threat is the likelihood or frequency of a harmful event occurring.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 6

Question text
True or False: In a required relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist. In an optional relationship, the entity must be present for the other entity to exist.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 7

Question text
The Base Metrics include all the following except:
Select one:
a. Access Vector
b. Authentication
c. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
d. Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability Impacts

The correct answer is: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
Question 8

Question text
There are five rules of scheduling; which of the following is NOT one of them:
Select one:
a. Eliminate uncertainty wherever you can
b. Pick the right level of granularity
c. Take a vacation
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Take a vacation
Question 9

Question text
The purpose of the Sample Change Request Impact Form:
Select one:
a. Document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change
b. The PM and SE define the schedule and cost.
c. The PM and SE redefine the schedule and the cost.
d. impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.

The correct answer is: impacts of the change document the priority for the action, and the cost and schedule of the change.
Question 10

Question text
See Table 13-1; which methodology requires human interface guidelines?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Object
Question 11

Question text
True or False: Data requirements for applications include: input, output, storage, and retrieval.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 12

Question text
True or False: In many projects the change management system is NOT linked to (or is part of) a defect tracking.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 13

Question text
____ are input data created to demonstrate that both components and the total system satisfy all design requirements.
Select one:
a. Test plan
b. Test strategy
c. Test cases
d. Subsystem testing

The correct answer is: Test cases
Question 14

Question text
True/False: Object oriented design has seven steps.
Select one:
True
False

The response was correct.
The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 15

Question text
True or False: Sometimes referred to as a ‘business case’, the project proposal states the lowest level goals in a project.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 16

Question text
“FIGURE 9-7 ABC Video Partial Functional Decomposition of Purchasing” is a:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Process flow
c. Function
d. Data flow

The correct answer is: Process flow
Question 17

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The results of structured design are all BUT the following:
Select one:
a. programming specifications
b. plans for testing
c. conversation
d. training and installation

The correct answer is: conversation
Question 18

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True or False: The product or project can be accepted even if acceptance testing is not complete.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 19

Question text
True or False: Program specifications document the program’s purpose, process requirements, the logical and physical data definitions, input and output formats, screen layouts, constraints, and special processing considerations that might complicate the program.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 20

Question text
Restructuring is:
Select one:
a. the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
b. is the reverse analysis of an old application to conform to a new methodology, usually Information Engineering or object orientation.
c. is also known as reverse engineering. Rebuilding is the retirement and redevelopment of an application.
d. the redevelopment of an application with a bridge to the old application.

The correct answer is: the redevelopment of a portion of an application with a bridge to the old application.
Question 21

Question text
The critical path of a project is defined as:
Select one:
a. Shortest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.
b. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
c. The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the least time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project can complete on time.
d. Longest sequence of dependent tasks to project completion.

The correct answer is: The sequence of dependent tasks that together take the most time. If any of the tasks are delayed, the project is also delayed
Question 22

Question text
The Project Manager’s job is to:
Select one:
a. Must understand the customer requirements for the team and keep the SE’s on track.
b. Leads the design, coding and testing effort. Decides which process to use (data, or object oriented design) and directs and reviews the SE2 products.
c. Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
d. Documents the figures, diagrams for process, data, or object oriented design.
e. Constructs schedule and milestones and keeps the PM informed and on schedule.

The correct answer is: Leads the team and is responsible for the final product quality and timeliness.
Question 23

Question text
True or False: The Temporal group reflects the intrinsic qualities of a vulnerability.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 24

Question text
The purpose of the system test is:
Select one:
a. demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in the actual production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
b. is a system test and NOT a documentation test.
c. test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
d. ensure that the changes do not cause the application to regress to a nonfunctional state, that is, that the changes do not introduce errors into the processing.

The correct answer is: test to demonstrate an application’s ability to operate satisfactorily in a simulated production environment using its intended hardware and software configuration.
Question 25

Question text
True or False: Information systems methodology framework is NOT used to compare methodologies.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 26

Question text
The video store case study in chapter 2 includes requirements for customer, video and ___________.
Select one:
a. Rental Processing
b. Software
c. Hardware
d. Networks

The correct answer is: Rental Processing
Question 27

Question text
Which of the following is NOT a group of CVSS?
Select one:
a. Base
b. Temporal
c. Environmental
d. Human

The correct answer is: Human
Question 28

Question text
True or False: The systems engineer provides organizational expertise while the project manager provides technical expertise.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 29

Question text
See Figure 2: CVSS Metrics and Equations. Which values are considered optional when reflecting the risk posed by the vulnerability to a user’s environment?
Select one:
a. Base metrics plus vector
b. Temporal metrics
c. Environmental metrics
d. B and C

The correct answer is: B and C
Question 30

Question text
Potential distribution of the application. The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 31

Question text
Jenkins (2005) stated that the critical path is defined as:
Select one:
a. It is this path that you can traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
b. It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
c. The critical path represents the ideal set of tasks to be complete for your project
d. The critical path represents a set of tasks to be complete for your project

The correct answer is: It is this path that you must traverse in order to reach completion of your project on time
Question 32

Question text
True or False: Identification does not refer to both Analysis and Design.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 33

Question text
True or False: Traceability is proven at test or implementation time and validates that a requirement has been satisfied.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 34

Question text
The R in CRUD matrix stands for:
Select one:
a. Repeat
b. Return
c. Report
d. Retrieve

The correct answer is: Retrieve
Question 35

Question text
An _______ is an entity from the real world whose processes and attributes (that is, the data) are modeled in a computerized application.
Select one:
a. abstract data type (ADT)
b. Class/objects
c. Object
d. class

The correct answer is: Object
Question 36

Question text
A Structured Walk-Through does not include this work product:
Select one:
a. Program code
b. Programmer
c. Test plan
d. Test design

The correct answer is: Programmer
Question 37

Question text
See Table 13-2; which methodology does not require Data Relationships knowledge?
Select one:
a. Process
b. Data
c. Object
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: Process
Question 38

Question text
How many types in “FIGURE 9-27 Types of Process Dependency Connections?”
Select one:
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Five

The correct answer is: Five
Question 39

Question text
“TABLE 8-9 CASE Tools for Structured Design Program” code include all but:

Select one:
a. The Developer
b. Maestro
c. Oracle
d. Analyst/Designer Toolkit

The correct answer is: Oracle
Question 40

Question text
Project teams characterize risk by impact and likelihood. Which quadrant is high impact and high likelihood?

Select one:
a. Major
b. Critical
c. Minor
d. Major

The correct answer is: Critical
Question 41

Question text
True or False: There are three basic types of business programs: report, edit/validate, and file update.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 42

Question text
True or False: The means to store unlimited, continuously growing databases currently are called data marts.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘False’.
Question 43

Question text
The list below are useful terms in expressing requirements specifications and can be abbreviated to stand for:

Select one:
a. START
b. STOP
c. SMART
d. None of the above

The correct answer is: SMART
Question 44

Question text
True or False: Figure 7-9 Example of Complex Context Diagram describes a inflows context called patients claims processing.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.
Question 45

Question text
The Data Dictionary Process Contents does not include:
Select one:
a. Process Data
b. Process ID Number
c. Constraints (e.g., concurrence, sequential with another process, time-out, etc.)
d. Process Name

The correct answer is: Process Data
Question 46

Question text
Project Managers must exhibit all these qualities except:
Select one:
a. Understanding
b. Trust
c. Budgeting
d. Empathy

The correct answer is: Budgeting
Question 47

Question text
Useful tools for software engineers DO NOT include:
Select one:
a. process dependencies
b. synchronization matrix
c. process hierarchies
d. object diagrams.

The correct answer is: synchronization matrix
Question 48

Question text
The specific activities in structured systems analysis:
Select one:
a. Develop a context diagram
b. Optionally, develop a state-transition diagram if building an on-line or real-time application
c. Develop a structured data dictionary
d. Develop a set of balanced data flow diagrams

The correct answer is: Develop a structured data dictionary
Question 49

Question text
Figure 7-3 Sample Data Flow Diagram depicts data flowing from Process 2.0 to:
Select one:
a. File B
b. Process 3.0
c. Entity Name 1
d. Process 2.0

The correct answer is: Entity Name 1
Question 50

Question text
True or False: The Humphrey’s maturity frameworks were developed for the Department of Defense as a self-assessment framework that identifies levels of computing and application development process maturity.
Select one:
True
False

The correct answer is ‘True’.